As the United States confronts the COVID-19 pandemic in communities around the country, people want clear and accurate answers to pressing questions about how to manage daily life in the face of this dangerous virus. Given what we know about the extremely contagious nature of the novel coronavirus, its high rate of serious health impacts and death, and now, the emerging science on how it can spread through people who do not know they are contagious, it helps to know how to keep yourself and others safe while doing what were once routine tasks.
Fear is a natural response to new information about threats and their risks. But with accurate information on how to take action to protect yourself and loved ones, fear naturally causes humans to become more efficient in responding to danger. This can lead to action, agency, courage, creativity, and much more. In fact, the upwelling we’ve seen around the world of compassionate, urgent, and brave responses to the pandemic is part of this process.
Almost all of us are experiencing changes to daily life we couldn't have imagined at the start of 2020. How to prepare, respond, and perform even basic functions like grocery shopping and doing laundry are now in question. The overall approach to all tasks and functions, whether you are sheltering at home or going outside for essential work, lies with keeping yourself and others safe from the dangers of COVID-19.
Stacker scoured other news outlets and public health resources—and surveyed our families and friends—to compile a list of 25 common questions about COVID-19 and provide answers for each. A few of the most important takeaway points are staying away from others, keeping yourself and surfaces clean, and knowing what to do if you get sick. With accurate information that allows for informed action and protection in place, people will find ever more creative ways of expressing their support, love, and compassion for others during this global health crisis.
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The flu and COVID-19 symptoms are a bit similar, so it’s important to pay attention right now if you get sick. Both can include fever, muscle ache, and fatigue, but COVID-19 often also includes a dry cough and shortness of breath. If you have any questions about your symptoms, call the Centers for Disease Control Self-Check and call your doctor. If you are experiencing respiratory distress, seek medical help immediately.
Although COVID-19 is generally most risky for older adults and those with certain health conditions, the Centers for Disease Control research released on March 18, 2020, show that a significant number of younger people also get seriously ill. As many as one-fifth of COVID-19 patients admitted to hospitals were between 20 and 44 years old. And in a letter published in the New England Journal of Medicine April 28, 2020, doctors working at Mount Sinai in New York City reported that five people under the age of 50 had large vessel strokes. All tested positive for COVID-19—and all had few or no symptoms.
Emerging data from numerous countries indicates that men have a greater risk of infection, serious illness, and death related to COVID-19 than women, with death rates nearly double that of women (although this depends on the country and other factors). At first, researchers thought this might be related to behavior differences, such as hand-washing choices, seeking medical treatment, or smoking. However, the pattern is now so pronounced across the world that researchers suspect there is a fundamental biological mechanism at work that we will only know with more research.
Once study released April 29, 2020, in Frontiers in Public Health found that men and women shared equal riask of contracting COVID-19, but that men had a higher chance of facing more serious or significant symptoms.
Yes, smokers are at significantly greater risk of serious complications from COVID-19 than non-smokers. Smokers’ lungs are already compromised, and the additional impact of the respiratory complications from novel coronavirus is that much harder on the lungs. The New England Journal of Medicine published a paper Feb. 28, 2020, that showed smokers, or those who smoked regularly in the past, have a 10% greater chance of serious complications from COVID-19 than non-smokers.
One of the reasons COVID-19 is so dangerous is it spreads very effectively to others from those who don’t realize they’re infected. These people are “asymptomatic” or have such a mild response to the disease that they don’t realize they might have it. Up to half of all infections are in mild or asymptomatic people who spread the virus with no awareness they are doing so, according to research reported on March 20, 2020, in the journal Nature. This happens through “viral shedding;” when the virus is fully active in people’s nose, throats, and lungs—and fully contagious—even in mild or asymptomatic cases. As many as 25% of those infected may not show symptoms, according to data released by the Centers for Disease Control on March 30, 2020.
COVID-19 lives for various lengths of time on familiar surfaces and you may be at risk of being exposed if you do not take precautions. Knowing how long the virus lives on different surfaces can help people be proactive about how they handle things like boxes, mail, and groceries. For example, COVID-19 can survive for up to nine days on plastic and steel, while it may live for up to one day in the air or on cardboard.
The Centers for Disease Control has previously said the risk of animals becoming infected is rare. But they updated their guidelines following two cats' positive tests, announcing that the same social distancing measures for humans should be employed for pets. This includes avoiding pets' interaction with other animals or people outside the home—particularly public places and dog parks—and maintaining six feet when walking dogs. Existing precautions like careful hand-washing and covering your face still applies. If you are sick with COVID-19, the CDC recommends that someone else in your home take over care for your pet.
A whole host of healthy habits will give you and your body a great immune boost. Drinking plenty of water, getting fresh air and exercise, building in socially distant time with friends, and adding garlic, mushrooms, and vitamin C to your diet are all great ways to naturally build up your immune system. Check out this great list of tips from Stacker on boosting your immunity during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Most likely, yes. The doubts about ibuprofen surfaced in part as a result of a letter published on March 12, 2020, in the journal The Lancet. The story serves as a cautionary tale in a pandemic, when people may seize on information that is not accurate and spread it. The letter in question hypothesized that some medications, including ibuprofen, might possibly make it easier for the novel coronavirus to infect cells. There was no study or evidence to support this claim besides an idea about how the virus might possibly interact with the medication in the body.
It is fine to choose acetaminophen to feel better if you are concerned. According to an NPR story on March 18, 2020, Dr. Angela Rogers, “a pulmonologist at the Stanford University Medical Center and chair of its intensive care unit's COVID-19 task force, says that Tylenol (acetaminophen) is the go-to medication for patients who are sick enough to be hospitalized for any infection.” If you have any questions about whether to take ibuprofen for COVID-19 symptoms, call your doctor.
For basic treatment of COVID-19 symptoms the Mayo Clinic recommends pain relievers like acetaminophen or ibuprofen, cough suppressants and medications, plenty of fluids, and lots of rest. At the time of this writing there is not an antiviral medication recommended.
Since it is possible for the COVID-19 virus to live on surfaces for hours to days, cleaning is key. Cleaning products that kill this virus include soap and water, bleach, surgical spirits (basically high-strength ethanol), and hand sanitizers with ethanol higher than 70%. Cleaning and disinfecting your kitchen and other high-use areas will help kill any living virus in your home. Airing out inside air also helps, since the virus is airborne. Plus, if someone is in your home who has COVID-19 (whether they know it or not), adopting cleaning procedures will help protect other residents in your home.
There is no clear evidence that wearing gloves will protect people who leave their homes to shop for basic, essential items. The Centers for Disease Control does recommend wearing gloves if you are caring for someone at home who has COVID-19. But some researchers are concerned that wearing gloves as a measure to protect yourself can actually backfire, as the gloves may offer a false sense of security. They urge people to always wash hands thoroughly with soap and water after any essential trip out.
It’s basic chemistry! Soap is special; because of its chemical structure it powerfully breaks molecules apart. Washing your hands with soap and water for 20 seconds essentially destroys and removes any virus or bacteria that may be on your hands. In fact, according to Popular Science, Mathew Freeman, a professor of epidemiology and global health at Emory University, says that, “Handwashing with soap for 20 seconds is one of the single most important practices to protect yourself, your family, and your community.”
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Now that we know a large portion of people can spread the virus without realizing they are infected—and that COVID-19 can spread through talking and breathing—the CDC has issued a recommendation that people wear face masks in public settings. Guidelines on the CDC website outline the best fabric to use for masks (cotton) and how to make your own, homemade masks. N-95 masks are needed by health-care workers for their personal protective equipment, and should remain reserved for health care workers only.
First, reduce your number of outings as much as possible: Order groceries to be delivered or pick them up curbside. If you do need to physically enter a store, there are a few key ways to protect yourself and others while shopping. Wear a mask, and always wash your hands thoroughly for 20 seconds before, and especially after, you go out. Stay at least six feet away from other people while you are out. Wipe down all surfaces you will touch, like the grocery cart or shopping basket handle, with a disinfecting wipe before putting your hand on it. Some experts also advise wiping down all containers when you get home before putting them away since the virus can live on plastics and metals for days. You can also do this if you order groceries to be delivered. If it's cool enough outside, leaving groceries for 24 hours on your front porch or in your garage is another option.
During this time, take-out or delivery of food from local eateries may be a balm to you and to your local businesses. Is it safe? With some precautions, yes. Health experts say that as long as you wash your hands well after removing the outer packaging, you will remove any points of contact for the virus to infect you. Do not go out if you’re sick, while you are out it's safest to assume everyone is potentially contagious—this is essential for protecting yourself, but also for protecting those who deliver and serve food. Keep “no contact” protocols in place as much as possible.
Many Americans have all but stopped driving, however some still need to get gas for essential trips or essential work outside the home. Protect yourself and others when you pump by wiping every surface you touch with disinfecting wipes, before and after pumping. If you can, use EPA-registered household disinfectants, such as Clorox Disinfecting Wipes and Lysol brand disinfectants. The CDC is not recommending gloves unless you are sick, in which case, please stay home. And remember, wash hands thoroughly before and after gassing up and any errands, don’t touch your face, and keep those trips to a minimum.
It is a good idea to up your laundry game during the pandemic. The virus is able to survive on surfaces, including cloth, for varying periods of time. Basic laundry instructions from health-care experts are: Wash your clothes in hot water above 80 degrees; use a detergent with a bleach compound; and wash clothes separately from anyone at home who is sick.
If you need to use a laundromat, disinfect surfaces with wipes as you would while grocery shopping. When you get home, change out of the clothes you were wearing, leave your shoes at the door, and hop in the shower.
The White House in early April 2020 issued specific social distancing guidance urging older Americans and those with underlying health conditions to stay home and to avoid other people. The best way to support your older parents is to help make sure they are prepared to shelter in place, follow all protocols for self-protection if food or other items are delivered, and hold off on visits during the immediacy of the pandemic. Adults over 65, or with certain conditions like diabetes or impaired heart or lung function, are at almost double the risk for serious complications from COVID-19.
The best thing you can is to stay home! More than anything else, this will help reduce strain and impact on health care workers and the health care system by keeping more people safe and healthy. Other things you can do to directly support medical teams is to donate any personal protective equipment (PPE) you may have, call elected officials to support a federal response to ensure PPE is available to health-care workers, donate money, and possibly help by making face masks to help in certain instances. There are detailed support instructions for more ways to help health care workers offered by the American Medical Association.
Delivery drivers for places like the U.S. Postal Service, UPS, and Amazon have quickly found themselves on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic. Their deliveries are even more important now that many Americans depend on deliveries for essential food and other items. Unfortunately, many drivers are physically unprotected and don't have health insurance. Companies are working to solve a situation where drivers face a high risk of exposure by doing their normal jobs. You can take precautions at home by cleaning out the inside of your mailbox with a disinfectant wipe and respecting a delivery person's space by letting them set packages down for you without you taking them by hand. If you want to leave a care package for delivery workers, follow all protocols for safety as you assemble it.
To protect yourself, you can set aside your mail for 24 hours (the length of time COVID-19 can survive on paper and cardboard) and wash your hands thoroughly after opening mail and discarding envelopes.
The best guidance is to stay home and stay put. Do not travel to other places or second homes in the country. Others who travel like this are risking the possibility of spreading the virus. The science of COVID-19 is clear: People who travel increase the risk to others by inadvertently spreading this highly contagious and dangerous virus.
The Centers for Disease Control has specific instructions for what to do while you are sick, that include isolating and practicing protective hygiene. Always call your doctor if you have questions. Seek immediate medical attention if you have “trouble breathing, persistent pain or pressure in the chest, new confusion or inability to arouse, or have bluish lips or face. This list is not all-inclusive. Please consult your medical provider for any other symptoms that are severe or concerning.”
It appears as though it is possible to be infected with the virus more than once, although diagnostic testing is not thorough enough to be conclusive. Some people in Wuhan, China, have tested positive more than once. There are also many people who have likely had the disease and don’t know for sure, because they have not been able to be tested.
Life will be different after a global pandemic. Almost everyone on Earth has already been affected one way or another, and some of these impacts will be lasting. We don’t know yet how quickly we will develop a vaccine or effective drugs, but people are working around the clock to help everyone adapt to this immediate “new normal.” As the pandemic surges in the immediate future and countries around the world work to “flatten the curve,” one thing to keep in mind is that pandemics have impacted human civilization before and people have responded in various creative ways depending on the time, era, and the traits of the disease itself. The question now is, how will we respond?