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States producing the most maple syrup, corn and other major crops

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States producing the most maple syrup, corn, and other major crops

America’s farming industry contributed more than $130 billion to the country's gross domestic product in 2017. The agricultural industry as a whole would rank as the 16th largest economy in the world, just behind Mexico, injecting more than $1 trillion annually.

To find out which states produce the majority of crops, Stacker compiled a list of 75 crops and ranked the states that produce the most of each in 2019. Production values are provided by the United States Department of Agriculture’s state agricultural summaries as of Feb. 26, 2020. Data for some state’s production of a certain crop was not available, to avoid disclosing data for individual operations.

California was the top-producing state for many of the crops on the list and accounted for 100% of reported production among 10 of those crops. Stacker also looked to the website for The Packer, a leading fresh produce retail and foodservice newspaper that's been publishing for over 100 years, for information regarding production levels and trends across North America.

Under the administration of President Donald Trump, several trade wars have had a major impact on agriculture production in the United States. In July 2018, China enacted a 25% tariff on soybeans and other products, dropping overall agricultural exports to China to $5.9 billion in 2018, down from $15.8 billion the previous year.

Corresponding tariffs on steel also raised farming production costs, including a 6% increase in the cost of equipment. In response, the Trump administration approved a $28 billion bailout for farmers affected by trade wars, although investigations have been launched to look into the mismanagement of funds that left some feeling slighted.

Some relief may be in sight for farmers though, as the two countries signed the Phase I U.S.-China trade deal in January, which will lift some of the tariffs. China also agreed to purchase nearly $40 billion worth of agricultural goods this year alone.

In the end, California takes the cake as the top producer of 36 out of the 75 crops. Keep reading to see which states produce the most maple syrup, corn, and other major crops.

You may also like: Where America sends its corn and 20 other agricultural products

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Almonds

- Total production: $5.5 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $5.5 billion (100% of reported production)

California is all about almond orchards, as the greatest global producer of the hard-shelled nut. In 2018, the Golden State launched new markets in Mexico, Japan, and Italy, while the Duchess of Sussex Meghan Markle called the crop her go-to food while prepping for the royal wedding. In February, Almond Board of California CEO Richard Waycott touted 2020 as a record-breaking year for the nut, as consumers choose healthy snacks over saturated fats. As of late, President Trump's unfavorable trade negotiations with India may affect almond tariffs.

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Apples

- Total production: $3 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. Washington: $2.2 billion (72.5% of reported production)
--- #2. Michigan: $294.4 million (9.8%)
--- #3. New York: $262.3 million (8.7%)
--- #4. Pennsylvania: $107.6 million (3.6%)
--- #5. California: $71 million (2.4%)

Washington gets the biggest bite out of the apple for the Garden of Eden fruit, with 125 million boxes bringing in $2.2 billion annually. Packer reports a 20% increase from 2018, adding that in 2019, another 137.3 million boxes were produced, with 18.3 million strictly organic. Like almonds, apple tariffs teeter, making future costs unsure for the high-fiber and sodium-free crop that's a big-budget item from California to New York.

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Apricots

- Total production: $48.5 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $38.1 million (78.5% of reported production)
--- #2. Washington: $10.4 million (21.5%)

The Economic Times reports proposed tariffs on apricots under the Trump administration will remain under the scrutiny of India and China. As part of the Prunus family, the apricot, which originated in China, was developed further in the Mediterranean and migrated to Virginia, to become the state fruit after Spanish missionaries carried it to California in the 1700s. Globally, dried apricots expect to produce $836 million by 2026, proving the easily-bruised, fibrous fruit is highly profitable.

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Artichokes

- Total production: $63 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $63 million (100% of reported production)

Ecuador is asking America to cease artichoke levies in hopes of boosting trade and investment. The perennial crop, most fruitful in mild winter regions like California, can be cultivated in a greenhouse in colder regions. The abundant uses for the antioxidant-rich plant include medical research, tea, liquor, and cooking. An NBC report articulates the rise in the artichoke market, predicting considerable overall growth by 2023.

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Asparagus

- Total production: $87.6 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $26.6 million (30.3% of reported production)
--- #2. Washington: $26.2 million (29.9%)
--- #3. Michigan: $23.3 million (26.6%)
--- #4. New Jersey: $11.6 million (13.2%)

Vice President Mike Pence pointed out that asparagus farmers suffer from trade tariffs; however, the pain is slight according to iPolitics, which reports China plans to cease levies on the sparrow grass, bringing them back to pre-tariff September 2019 prices. Meanwhile, the demand for the vitamin A- and calcium-rich crop is growing with foodies and at-home chefs. The medicinal properties and taste of the perennial are first cultivated in a greenhouse, before being rooted outside.

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Avocados

- Total production: $400.4 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $383.5 million (95.8% of reported production)
--- #2. Florida: $15.3 million (3.8%)
--- #3. Hawaii: $1.6 million (0.4%)

The globe's largest avocado producer California cultivates almost 100% of the country's crop, which is botanically a fleshy-pulp fruit, but branded a vegetable by the USDA. The once-royal delicacy derived from a tree remains expensive today due to droughts and heat waves. The Trump administration threatens even higher crop costs, due to unfavorable trade conditions with Mexico.

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Barley

- Total production: $697.6 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Idaho: $269.3 million (38.6% of reported production)
--- #2. Montana: $155.2 million (22.3%)
--- #3. North Dakota: $120.8 million (17.3%)
--- #4. Colorado: $35 million (5%)
--- #5. Wyoming: $24.1 million (3.5%)

Barley equals beer, making demand for the crop consistent. As a member of the grass family, the grain is a tasty breakfast food, with cereal production projecting to grow substantially by 2023 due to health and convenience factors. As the top producer, Idaho cultivated 54.08 million bushels in 2019, with Montana second at 43.66 million bushels. Barley is one of the first refined grains and grows in various climates.

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Beans

- Total production: $351.9 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $69 million (19.6% of reported production)
--- #2. Florida: $58.7 million (16.7%)
--- #3. Wisconsin: $47.9 million (13.6%)
--- #4. New York: $34 million (9.7%)
--- #5. Georgia: $28 million (8%)

Though trade tensions between China and the United States remain, China lifted levies on soybeans and pork at the end of 2019. While California is the top contender for bean production, Wisconsin is number one in snap bean production, dedicating up to 63,500 acres to the crop in the Badger State that produces nearly 300,000 tons, equaling $29.1 million. After being planted in moist soil, which must stay above 65 F, bean seeds soften and germinate, eventually creating a tap root to anchor growth.

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Blueberries

- Total production: $820.5 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Oregon: $180.7 million (22% of reported production)
--- #2. California: $139.8 million (17%)
--- #3. Washington: $139.2 million (17%)
--- #4. Georgia: $87.3 million (10.6%)
--- #5. Michigan: $70.2 million (8.6%)

Maine’s Sen. Angus King called out the Trump administration in 2019 for not including the state’s wild blueberry farmers in the $12 billion aid to farmers who’ve suffered from trade wars. Meanwhile, Oregon remains the top producer of blueberries, which are rich in nutrients and taste, and cultivated in rows of high bushes that are harvested between mid-June and mid-August throughout North America. The U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council reports the tiny fruit is popular in concentrated, dried, pureed and frozen forms, while Produce Business reports up to 65% of women between the ages of 25 and 44 purchase the little balls of fruit biweekly.

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Broccoli

- Total production: $738.5 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $679.4 million (92% of reported production)
--- #2. Arizona: $59.1 million (8%)

The large, flower-head plant from the cabbage family is considered a cool-weather crop, growing best between 64 and 73 degrees Fahrenheit. Branded a brain food, broccoli doesn't have a long U.S. history, as it has only been grown in America since 1925. Almost a century later, California remains the top producer of broccoli, the 13th top commodity in the state.

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Cabbage

- Total production: $408.1 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $181.5 million (44.5% of reported production)
--- #2. Florida: $62.8 million (15.4%)
--- #3. New York: $52.9 million (13%)
--- #4. Arizona: $33.5 million (8.2%)
--- #5. Texas: $27.4 million (6.7%)

Yahoo Finance forecasts the consumer demand for the flowery vegetable, harvested twice a year in cool weather, will grow increasingly up to 2025. Add in each St. Patrick's Day, when cabbage shipments soar up to 70%, and cabbage only gets more financially fruitful. The price of cabbage, which produces best in full sun and drained soil, rose by 62.5% at Walmart from 2018 to 2019, up 30 cents a head.

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Canola

- Total production: $568.6 million
- Top states:
--- #1. North Dakota: $489.3 million (86% of reported production)
--- #2. Washington: $20.3 million (3.6%)
--- #3. Montana: $18.3 million (3.2%)
--- #4. Minnesota: $15.9 million (2.8%)
--- #5. Idaho: $13.8 million (2.4%)

A winter and spring crop, canola oil and meal cultivate from pods on 3- to 5-foot yellow flower stalks. With up to 45% seed oil, canola makes a popular cooking and baking ingredient, which keeps production up in North America, where most canola grows. Yahoo Finance reports consumer demand for global vegetable oil will continue to grow until 2025, making up to $135.5 billion.

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Carrots

- Total production: $732.9 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $687.6 million (93.8% of reported production)
--- #2. Washington: $20 million (2.7%)
--- #3. Michigan: $14.5 million (2%)
--- #4. Wisconsin: $7.1 million (1%)
--- #5. Texas: $3.8 million (0.5%)

The recent reduction in carrot tariffs from China and the forecast growth of the high beta carotene food keeps the sixth most-eaten vegetable producing millions. High consumer demand for them came when baby carrots hit the market in 1986, since they are a healthy grab-and-go snack, quite popular with moms and kids on the run. They are very popular with ranch dressing, which tends to add unneeded calories to the food.

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Cauliflower

- Total production: $434.5 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $354.8 million (81.6% of reported production)
--- #2. Arizona: $79.7 million (18.4%)

Similar to vegetable family members broccoli and cabbage, cauliflower is a cool-season crop that has become more popular with health-conscious America, leading to an increase in recipes for the vegetable. Cauliflower rice, couscous, hash and pizza crust are just some ways foodies are experimenting with the vegetable and keeping up consumer demand.

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Celery

- Total production: $436.8 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $417.3 million (95.5% of reported production)
--- #2. Michigan: $19.5 million (4.5%)

America's juicing frenzy makes celery a coveted commodity among crops, with some cartons costing up to $100. California and Michigan are making millions from celery, which can be difficult to grow because of long harvest seasons that require cold temperatures and much water. The Agricultural Marketing Resource Center reports celery seed and oil remain in demand, as an herb in food, and medicinally, to regulate blood pressure.

You may also like: 50 fascinating facts about farming in America

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Cherries

- Total production: $686.7 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Washington: $426.5 million (62.1% of reported production)
--- #2. California: $140.4 million (20.4%)
--- #3. Oregon: $70.8 million (10.3%)
--- #4. Michigan: $37.9 million (5.5%)
--- #5. Utah: $9.1 million (1.3%)

Whether or not George Washington ever cut down his father’s cherry tree is secondary to his namesake state growing a plethora of the plants annually. Climate-sensitive North American cherry trees must maintain temperatures under 45 F for up to 800-1,000 hours to bloom. While most cherries are consumed fresh, up to 25% are processed and eaten in many forms, including frozen or dried.

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Coffee

- Total production: $50.2 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Hawaii: $50.2 million (100% of reported production)

According to Dunkin Donuts, Americans run on their coffee, and Hawaii produces all of the crop in the United States. Coffee is Hawaii’s second most valuable commodity, with up to 900 farms throughout the region that are able to harvest the bean year-round in the warm climate. The crop even has 24 hours dedicated to it, with Sept. 29 of each year tagged as National Coffee Day, when sales soar.

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Corn

- Total production: $52.1 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. Iowa: $9 billion (17.2% of reported production)
--- #2. Illinois: $8.2 billion (15.8%)
--- #3. Nebraska: $6.4 billion (12.3%)
--- #4. Minnesota: $4.7 billion (9%)
--- #5. Indiana: $3.7 billion (7%)

Corn could suffer a $3.5 billion loss if the Trump administration trade wars go on much longer. Mexico counts on the United States for corn, and bought $2.7 billion in 2017. Add in the free-trade agreement with Mexico, and the billion-dollar crop also becomes free of tax. Corn, harvested at different times for specific textures and flavors, germinates five to 12 days after being planted in 2-inch soil, eventually becoming a thick stalk that can grow as high as 15 feet, depending on the variety and climate.

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Cotton

- Total production: $5.9 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. Texas: $2.2 billion (37.7% of reported production)
--- #2. Georgia: $695.4 million (11.7%)
--- #3. Mississippi: $527 million (8.9%)
--- #4. Arkansas: $385 million (6.5%)
--- #5. Missouri: $314.8 million (5.3%)

Another casualty of trade wars, soft cotton has seen hard times in 2018 and 2019, with a drop in cost and demand. Cultivated in a hard case on a shrub in subtropical conditions in 60 F soil, the fluffy fiber is also subject to climate change. Increased temperatures, less water and unsure rain patterns predict cotton production could decline up to 46% by 2100.

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Cranberries

- Total production: $222.4 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Wisconsin: $142.7 million (64.1% of reported production)
--- #2. Massachusetts: $50 million (22.5%)
--- #3. New Jersey: $15.8 million (7.1%)
--- #4. Oregon: $14 million (6.3%)

Cranberries are getting “crushed” in the trade wars, according to reporting from Adrian Ma of NPR, who reports the Massachusetts market is bogged down with too many cranberries due to Chinese tariffs blocking exports. The native North American fruit, cultivated in man-made wetlands, sees its highest consumer demand in November, when Thanksgiving week accounts for 20% of the 400 million pounds of cranberries eaten annually in the United States. After growing on low-level vines in saturated bogs, cranberries float to the top due to a diminutive air pocket in the plant.

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Cucumbers

- Total production: $317.6 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Florida: $118.5 million (37.3% of reported production)
--- #2. Michigan: $55.4 million (17.5%)
--- #3. Georgia: $35.2 million (11.1%)
--- #4. California: $33.8 million (10.6%)
--- #5. North Carolina: $25.6 million (8.1%)

Cucumbers grow on vines with supported trellises due to the heavy weight from their 95% water volume. Though the summer of 2019 wasn't as financially ripe as usual for cucumbers, the vegetable that is most popular sliced and pickled still brought in almost $120 million in Florida, the top state for cucumber crop production. Like most crops on the list, cucumbers are on the “tit-for-tat trade war” list, according to Market Insider.

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Dates

- Total production: $218.2 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $152.2 million (69.7% of reported production)
--- #2. Arizona: $66.1 million (30.3%)

Though the sweet fruit is known for its Middle Eastern history, date palms are cultivated in 3,000 locations worldwide, with California a significant producer. Produce Business reports the fruit, most popular at Thanksgiving, Christmas and Ramadan, is slowly becoming a year-round pleasure for consumers due to health benefits for high blood pressure, constipation, osteoporosis and hormone levels. Additionally, dates’ preserving elements and ability to replace sweetening additives keep the fruit, grown in long hot summers with little rainfall, in demand.

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Flaxseed

- Total production: $43.5 million
- Top states:
--- #1. North Dakota: $37.5 million (86.1% of reported production)
--- #2. Montana: $5.6 million (12.8%)
--- #3. South Dakota: $0.4 million (1%)

Flaxseed farmers who have suffered from the trade wars received a portion of the 2019 bailouts offered to producers of dozens of crops by the Trump administration. Flaxseed's health benefits, which include cancer-fighting omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants, are driving the market, specifically in animal feed and bakery products. Flaxseed also remains in demand due to its fibrous texture and use in linens plus other forms, including flour, oil, powder and seed.

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Garlic

- Total production: $412.6 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $412.6 million (100% of reported production)

The international trade wars have turned things around for U.S. garlic farmers, with Christopher Ranch, the largest California producer, reporting significantly-increased profits since the U.S. imposed higher tariffs on imported Chinese garlic in 2018. Ken Christopher, executive vice president, spoke in support of the Trump administration, which he said finally gave U.S. farmers a fair playing field in the industry. Gilroy, California, branded the “garlic capital of the world,” touts an annual festival for the crop, that takes nine months to grow cloves from the bulb.

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Grapefruit

- Total production: $208 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Florida: $73.2 million (35.2% of reported production)
--- #2. California: $69.7 million (33.5%)
--- #3. Texas: $65.1 million (31.3%)

Considered the finest, Florida grapefruit brings in more than $73 million annually in sales, as the crop recovers from Hurricane Irma in 2017 and looming citrus greening disease. Sunshine State lawmakers have allotted $8 million for citrus disease research in hopes of ending the plight. Grapefruit trees, planted in the spring and fall, thrive in warm conditions, explaining why Florida, California and Texas are the three greatest producers of the fruit.

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Grapes

- Total production: $6.6 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $6.3 billion (94.5% of reported production)
--- #2. Washington: $360.9 million (5.5%)

As barley is to beer, grapes are to wine, especially in California, where a surplus of the fruit is causing chaos in crop orchards that to date bring in $6.6 billion. Wine costs are at a five-year low due to flattened consumer demand, especially with millenials, according to reporting from Allen Kim at CNN. Cultivated on vines and grown in different color clusters including black, blue, yellow, green, orange and white, grapes grow best in regions with long summers and wet winters.

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Hay and haylage

- Total production: $19.6 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $1.3 billion (6.6% of reported production)
--- #2. Texas: $1.1 billion (5.8%)
--- #3. Wisconsin: $1 billion (5.1%)
--- #4. Idaho: $850.8 million (4.3%)
--- #5. New York: $833.6 million (4.3%)

Harvesting hay and haylage grass entails tilling dirt, planting, raking and bailing the crop, that harvests within seven to eight months of planting. Though the process is labor-intensive, California, Texas, and Wisconsin hay farmers collectively produce $3.4 billion of the grass. However, imposed tariffs in international trade wars have China producing its alfalfa grass, or purchasing from Bulgaria and Spain, according to Hay & Forage Grower.

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Hazelnuts

- Total production: $91.8 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Oregon: $91.8 million (100% of reported production)

Among trade wars, Chinese diplomat Wang Donghua spoke with Oregan hazelnut farmers in February about the food on which his government began imposing retaliatory tariffs in 2018. While Oregon contributes the most hazelnuts in the United States, with 1,000 families harvesting the nut on more than 80,000 acres, Turkey is the top global producer of the crop that has become increasingly popular in the global confectionery industry. Unlike many crops, hazelnuts pollinate in the winter months and begin growing in spring, making early fall the time they ripen and fall from husks.

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Hops

- Total production: $583.4 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Washington: $427.5 million (73.3% of reported production)
--- #2. Idaho: $86.1 million (14.8%)
--- #3. Oregon: $69.9 million (12%)

The Northwest climates and soil, along with family farms and irrigated water in Washington and Oregon, make the two states ideal for hops production. Hops, a climbing plant referred to as seed cones, most often sold in 200-pound bales, see a successful harvest after two years in a moderate climate. Hops are an essential ingredient for flavoring and stabilizing beer, which remains in demand, with the United States selling 202.2 million barrels in 2018.

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Kiwifruit

- Total production: $32.9 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $32.9 million (100% of reported production)

The Golden State is so serious about the tasty, little green fruit that it formed the California Kiwifruit Commission for the less than 300 growers who each harvest approximately 13 acres of land. Kiwifruit vines grow best on frost-protected and supported structures in temperate climates. The health benefits of the fruit, which is high in vitamins C, K and E, include aiding digestion, boosting the immune system and decreasing colon cancer risks.

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Lemons

- Total production: $715.8 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $681.6 million (95.2% of reported production)
--- #2. Arizona: $34.2 million (4.8%)

In late 2019, the United States began imposing a 25% tariff on European lemons after the World Trade Organization sided with America in a $7.5 billion arbitration award. California is the top producer of lemons in warm temperatures, but too much heat can make the small species from an evergreen tree quite expensive. Lemons harvest three times a year for taste and acidity, from orchards that thrive in tropical and subtropical climates.

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Lentils

- Total production: $131.7 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Montana: $68.5 million (52% of reported production)
--- #2. North Dakota: $35.5 million (26.9%)
--- #3. Washington: $16.9 million (12.8%)
--- #4. Idaho: $10.9 million (8.3%)

Consumer demand for lentils is rising with the popularity of plant-based diets, proving millions desire more vegan foods. Future tariffs on the plant remain uncertain as President Trump decides on pulse crop provisions with India, one of the largest producers of the legumes that grow in pods on bushes. The USA Dry Pea and Lentil Council CEO Tim McGreery reported the lowest price of lentils in 12 years in 2018.

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Lettuce

- Total production: $1.2 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $766.3 million (62.8% of reported production)
--- #2. Arizona: $453.5 million (37.2%)

Lettuce is not exempt from unfavorable trade relations, and is among one of many Chinese products that see higher tariffs for U.S. consumers. The two types of lettuce, head and leaf, come in varieties including leaf, romaine, butterhead and iceberg, which all cultivate differently, but require warm weather and nutrient-rich soil to thrive. The 2018 E. coli outbreak linked to romaine increased lettuce prices, with demand surmounting supply.

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Macadamias

- Total production: $42 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Hawaii: $42 million (100% of reported production)

Macadamia nuts were one of 15 products subject to a 10% tariff in September 2019. After cultivating for up to 10 years, a macadamia tree can bear fruit for up to 100 years in warm temperatures with high rainfall. As the largest U.S. producer, Hawaii was once considered the nut’s capital in the world, despite the tree's origins in Australia. Financial Review reports an increased worldwide consumption of the crop, and calls for more macadamia farms.

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Maple syrup

- Total production: $141.8 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Vermont: $54.3 million (38.3% of reported production)
--- #2. New York: $26.1 million (18.4%)
--- #3. Maine: $21.7 million (15.3%)
--- #4. New Hampshire: $9.1 million (6.4%)
--- #5. Wisconsin: $7.3 million (5.1%)

All-natural and organic maple syrup is in demand, especially in health-conscious America. The syrup antioxidants, which benefit the skin and fight inflammatory disease, are formed in maple tree bark. Trees are tapped annually in February. International trade wars prompted Canada to place a higher tax on maple syrup in response to the United States taxing Canadian metals in 2018.

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Melons

- Total production: $748.7 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $187.8 million (25.1% of reported production)
--- #2. Florida: $160.9 million (21.5%)
--- #3. Texas: $143.4 million (19.2%)
--- #4. Arizona: $87 million (11.6%)
--- #5. Georgia: $76.4 million (10.2%)

Grown in warm weather in spaced out rows of sprawling vines, the round sweet fruit brought in more than $27 billion globally in 2018, with China consuming the most that year. California comes in first again for production on the crop, that suffers looming international levy disputes.

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Millet

- Total production: $60.6 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Colorado: $41 million (67.7% of reported production)
--- #2. Nebraska: $13.1 million (21.7%)
--- #3. South Dakota: $6.5 million (10.6%)

The small grass seeds of millet, most often used for bread, cereal and animal feed, are abundant in Colorado, where they thrive best in dry weather conditions with high heat. U.S. millet farmers were awarded a portion of the $16 billion in bailouts for trade war tariffs by the Farm Service Agency under the Trump administration.

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Mint

- Total production: $104.6 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Oregon: $34.1 million (32.6% of reported production)
--- #2. Idaho: $33.7 million (32.3%)
--- #3. Washington: $29.2 million (28%)
--- #4. Indiana: $7.5 million (7.2%)

The many medical benefits, flavor and calming effects of mint keep consumer demand up, along with changing food trends demanding the herb. Grown year-round near cool and shaded watery areas, the plant has distinct flavors, including peppermint and spearmint. Mint can be used for anything from insect repellant to fresh breath, keeping the leaf in high consumer demand.

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Nectarines

- Total production: $104.6 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $104.6 million (100% of reported production)

Nectarines are yet another California fruit rising in cost because of trade wars. The smooth-skinned peach comes from trees harvested after 500 chilling hours needed before blossom. An excellent source of potassium and vitamins A and C, and low in fat and carbohydrates, nectarines are quite popular in baby food, since they aid in digestion and with constipation.

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Oats

- Total production: $164.7 million
- Top states:
--- #1. South Dakota: $20.8 million (12.6% of reported production)
--- #2. North Dakota: $20.8 million (12.6%)
--- #3. Minnesota: $15.4 million (9.4%)
--- #4. Wisconsin: $15.2 million (9.2%)
--- #5. Texas: $12.1 million (7.3%)

Long gone are the days when oats were only associated with porridge; now, the cereal grain is used to produce beverages, driving consumer demand. Oatmilk is now a dairy-free substitute for anyone who is lactose intolerant or suffers from nut allergies. Also in demand as horse feed or hay, oats continue to dominate agricultural production in North Dakota, where every county produces the grain, that undergoes milling for a specific use.

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Erin Deleon // Shutterstock

Olives

- Total production: $40.5 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $40.5 million (100% of reported production)

As the primary producer, California capitalizes on olives like several other fruits on the list. Olives come in several varieties and the slow-growing crop is harvested in autumn and winter by shaking the tree arm and sacking them. Trade wars have taken a toll on Spanish olive farmers, who faced hefty tariffs in 2019 after their product was determined to be “undercutting” California growers, according to Bloomberg.

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SchnepfDesign // Shutterstock

Oranges

- Total production: $1.8 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $1.1 billion (59.7% of reported production)
--- #2. Florida: $701.9 million (38.3%)
--- #3. Texas: $35.5 million (1.9%)

California and Florida, the two largest producers of the fruit, both have what frost-sensitive oranges need most—warm weather and water. Together, the two states are responsible for most of global orange production. Politico pointed out in 2018 that Harley Davidsons, bourbon and Florida orange juice stood to suffer from the trade wars that heated up that year.

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Marcio Jose Bastos Silva // Shutterstock

Papayas

- Total production: $5.7 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Hawaii: $5.7 million (100% of reported production)

Like macadamia nuts, papayas, produced from small, thin-branched trees, are exclusive to Hawaii, making millions for the island. While consumer demand for the fruit, which requires a frost-free climate, soared in 2016, the United States was in short supply of papayas in 2019. The large fruit, high in vitamins A and C, was genetically modified in the 1990s, when a virus hit Hawaii and threatened the species.

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Alexey Stiop // Shutterstock

Peaches

- Total production: $511.2 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $304.2 million (59.5% of reported production)
--- #2. South Carolina: $71.5 million (14%)
--- #3. New Jersey: $41 million (8%)
--- #4. Colorado: $28.1 million (5.5%)
--- #5. Georgia: $23.9 million (4.7%)

The Packer reported how the easily-bruised fruit was one food product hit financially harder than most in 2018, due to unfavorable United States and China trade relations. Though branded The Peach State, with the highest-quality fuzzy fruit, Georgia is fifth on the list for U.S. production. Self-pollinating peach trees cultivate close to one another, allowing for a more natural harvest, according to the Agriculture Marketing Resource Center, further noting they need at least 600 chilling hours before harvest.

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wilaiwan jantra // Shutterstock

Peanuts

- Total production: $1.2 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. Georgia: $593 million (50.7% of reported production)
--- #2. Texas: $131.6 million (11.2%)
--- #3. Alabama: $114.6 million (9.8%)
--- #4. Florida: $104.3 million (8.9%)
--- #5. North Carolina: $87.9 million (7.5%)

Formerly a peanut farmer, President Jimmy Carter drew a lot of attention in the early 1980s to the legume, most profitable as butter and oil, along with shelled. Since consumer demand for nut butter has risen with an ever-growing health-conscious America, so have retaliatory tariffs from many countries on peanuts, which are high in protein and linked to heart health and the management of weight and sugar.

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Pears

- Total production: $428.9 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Washington: $210.6 million (49.1% of reported production)
--- #2. Oregon: $141 million (32.9%)
--- #3. California: $77.3 million (18%)

Medium-sized pear trees, which thrive in wet, cold climates, bear the fruit picked before it ripens. With most U.S. production in the Northwest, pears, highly sensitive to bacteria disease, are most popular in Washington and Oregon. The Pear Bureau Northwest promotes a fruit bowl campaign in March, surely driving the demand for the fruit rich in fiber and antioxidants.

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LesiChkalll27 // Shutterstock

Peas

- Total production: $212.6 million
- Top states:
--- #1. North Dakota: $84.3 million (39.7% of reported production)
--- #2. Montana: $48 million (22.6%)
--- #3. Washington: $22.8 million (10.7%)
--- #4. Minnesota: $17.3 million (8.1%)
--- #5. Wisconsin: $11.8 million (5.6%)

U.S. grown peas exported to China are seeing high tariffs, making the vegetable, which is botanically a fruit, pricier than usual. Consumers seeking pea-protein foods to proxy meat products drive the demand for peas. Since soybeans have been hit so hard by trade wars, North Dakota farmer Mike Dick began raising dry peas again as he did in the 1990s, like other upper Midwest farmers who are seeking to grow similar, yet alternative crops.

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Shaina Kaytlin // Shutterstock

Pecans

- Total production: $425.3 million
- Top states:
--- #1. New Mexico: $173.1 million (40.7% of reported production)
--- #2. Georgia: $113.4 million (26.7%)
--- #3. Texas: $56.1 million (13.2%)
--- #4. Arizona: $52.2 million (12.3%)
--- #5. Oklahoma: $14.9 million (3.5%)

As one of the first targets of Chinese tariffs when the trade war began in 2018, pecans remain in demand both globally and domestically. Both food and wood, pecans cultivate on large trees that thrive in mild temperatures over a long period. The tall and shady pecan tree also supplies wildlife with the high-protein nuts that collectively make more than $425.3 million for the United States.

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rblfmr // Shutterstock

Peppers

- Total production: $598.6 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $210 million (35.1% of reported production)
--- #2. Florida: $180.6 million (30.2%)
--- #3. New Mexico: $53.8 million (9%)
--- #4. Georgia: $40.1 million (6.7%)
--- #5. New Jersey: $39.7 million (6.6%)

There are a plethora of pepper types, from banana and bell to jalapeno and cayenne. The spicier peppers are gaining attention in the baking industry for flavor, while buying sweet peppers bagged in bulk is hugely popular, particularly in California. Frost-sensitive peppers, which are native to America, cultivate best in warm temperatures that don’t dip below 54 F.

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Losonsky // Shutterstock

Pistachios

- Total production: $2.6 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $2.6 billion (100% of reported production)

Two key players in California, the largest producer of pistachios, are lobbying in favor of an Iran trade war. The story of the Resnick couple, who own Wonderful Pistachios and Fiji water, is being documented in “Pistachio Wars,” while orchards of their trees, which grow in a dry climate and take at least seven years to produce, are supplying America with one of their favorite nuts. Iran, formerly known as The Prince of Pistachio, reportedly feels pressure, with the United States slowly dominating the production of the nut that gave it previous royal standing.

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Artem Gaincev // Shutterstock

Plums

- Total production: $92.6 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $92.6 million (100% of reported production)

The most recent consumer demand for sweet and tart plums, which blossom in the spring, comes in baby food pouches, with Plum Organics as one of the top providers. While California cultivates plums for the United States for its May to October marketing season, Europe recently discovered a ripening cell that promises ripe fruit right away.

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fasthorses // Shutterstock

Potatoes

- Total production: $4 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. Idaho: $1 billion (25.7% of reported production)
--- #2. Washington: $788.3 million (19.7%)
--- #3. Wisconsin: $284.9 million (7.1%)
--- #4. North Dakota: $226.1 million (5.6%)
--- #5. California: $221.5 million (5.5%)

Unlike most crops on the list, potatoes are not suffering from trade wars, with the crop’s largest producer Idaho reportedly suffering from tariff discrepancies over dairy products and computer parts. Sold fresh, frozen or dehydrated, the root vegetable, which is low in fat and high in carbohydrates, has five growth stages before being ready to bake and serve with sour cream.

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Jirafotos // Shutterstock

Prunes

- Total production: $194.8 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $194.8 million (100% of reported production)

A prune is simply a dried plum. Bloomberg reports they're making a comeback in the trade wars by rebranding it a millennial superfood. The fruit thrives best in a Mediterranian climate, making California the hottest spot to grow the food most associated with relieving constipation.

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Smileus // Shutterstock

Pumpkins

- Total production: $195.4 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $27.6 million (14.1% of reported production)
--- #2. Texas: $24.1 million (12.3%)
--- #3. Indiana: $17 million (8.7%)
--- #4. Virginia: $15.4 million (7.9%)
--- #5. Michigan: $14.9 million (7.6%)

In 2019, Americans reportedly spent $377.23 million on pumpkins, which they cut up in scary and creative ways. While the United States is the world’s largest importer of pumpkins, the global market for the type of squash was $22.6 billion in 2018. The warm-weather crop, grown on thick ground vines, can become huge, even setting a record for weighing more than a small vehicle, which it could fit inside, according to CNN.

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oceanfishing // Shutterstock

Raspberries

- Total production: $367 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $331.1 million (90.2% of reported production)
--- #2. Washington: $35.9 million (9.8%)

Using raspberry leaves for tea or freezing the fruit in concentrate are just a couple ways to make the most of the antioxidant-rich food. Part of the rose family, the perennial plant grows from basal shoots produced in California and Washington. Consumer demand for raspberries has risen so high that the the Washington Red Raspberry Commission started plant breeding programs to supply the fruit linked to heart health, diabetes management and brainpower.

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Rice

- Total production: $2.9 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. Arkansas: $1.1 billion (39.6% of reported production)
--- #2. California: $925 million (31.9%)
--- #3. Louisiana: $348.3 million (12%)
--- #4. Texas: $188.3 million (6.5%)
--- #5. Missouri: $182.9 million (6.3%)

Cultivated in drenched fields, rice is yet another Chinese product seeing strife in the trade wars. The recent demand for organic rice, mainly in beer, has farmers rethinking how they cultivate the crop. The list of rice types goes on, with more than 40,000 varieties globally produced and most of the U.S. cereal grain coming from Arkansas.

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zoyas2222 // Shutterstock

Rye

- Total production: $11.1 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Oklahoma: $8.3 million (75.1% of reported production)
--- #2. Georgia: $2.8 million (24.9%)

Heavily used in beer and whiskey making, rye is a grass also used for animal feed. The “poverty grain,” which grows best in poor soil, is produced mostly in Oklahoma, where it was used first as a grazing crop before being adopted as an ingredient for alcoholic beverages. Rye whiskey expects to grow faster than any other American type by 2025, keeping the plant also used for cereal and bread in demand.

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Vladimir Konstantinov // Shutterstock

Safflower

- Total production: $48 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $30 million (62.5% of reported production)
--- #2. Montana: $7.8 million (16.3%)
--- #3. South Dakota: $3.7 million (7.7%)
--- #4. Idaho: $2.9 million (6.1%)
--- #5. Utah: $1.8 million (3.7%)

Safflower seed oil is a highly-used culinary agent, which is expected to have a Compound Annual Growth Rate of 5.1% by 2027. Additionally, demand for oils made up of healthy fats has risen with more-nutritious diet trends. Before safflower was cultivated as a food crop in the 1950s, the bright yellow plant was used to color and flavor foods.

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Sayanjo65 // Shutterstock

Sorghum

- Total production: $1.2 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. Kansas: $730 million (62% of reported production)
--- #2. Texas: $230.9 million (19.6%)
--- #3. South Dakota: $52.5 million (4.5%)
--- #4. Nebraska: $48.8 million (4.1%)
--- #5. Colorado: $47.6 million (4%)

The chief global consumer of sorghum is China, which purchased its most-enormous amount of the grass plant in 2019 during the trade wars. The non-genetically-modified and gluten-free grain is in demand more than ever in the age of organic food, with human consumption up 250% in the past five years. Meanwhile, Kansas, the largest U.S. producer, reports one-third of the grain sells as animal fodder and even aquatic feed.

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nnattalli // Shutterstock

Soybeans

- Total production: $36.8 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. Illinois: $5.8 billion (15.8% of reported production)
--- #2. Iowa: $4.7 billion (12.6%)
--- #3. Minnesota: $3.1 billion (8.6%)
--- #4. Indiana: $3 billion (8.1%)
--- #5. Ohio: $2.4 billion (6.6%)

International trade wars hit soybean farmers hard, with North Dakota possibly suffering worse than other U.S. states. The legume was the first primary agricultural product hit by China's 25% tariffs when the trade wars began in 2018. Soybeans are cultivated best in high-temperature summer for oil and meal, which sells for human consumption and livestock feed.

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FS Stock // Shutterstock

Spinach

- Total production: $411.9 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $316.7 million (76.9% of reported production)
--- #2. Arizona: $83.8 million (20.3%)
--- #3. Texas: $6.1 million (1.5%)
--- #4. New Jersey: $5.2 million (1.3%)

Known for its high iron content and as Popeye’s preferred vegetable, spinach is produced mostly in California, where it is cultivated year-round in coastal counties. The leafy quick-maturing crop that can be mechanically harvested is sold in many forms, including, fresh, canned, dehydrated and frozen. Frozen spinach is among the agricultural products taxed 25% by China in the trade wars.

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alicja neumiler // Shutterstock

Squash

- Total production: $135.6 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Michigan: $37.1 million (27.3% of reported production)
--- #2. California: $31 million (22.8%)
--- #3. New York: $24.2 million (17.8%)
--- #4. North Carolina: $18.3 million (13.5%)
--- #5. Oregon: $13.2 million (9.7%)

Though termed “winter” and “summer,” squash is a warm-weather crop quite popular during the fall holidays for ornamental purposes and cooking. The difference in cultivation is that young squash such as zucchini harvests early, while more-mature squash like butternut requires a longer growing season. With production totaled at more than $37 million, Michigan harvests the most squash on vines, with July through October the ripest season for the vegetable.

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Rov7 // Shutterstock

Strawberries

- Total production: $2.7 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $2.3 billion (87.6% of reported production)
--- #2. Florida: $281.8 million (10.6%)
--- #3. North Carolina: $21.4 million (0.8%)
--- #4. Oregon: $11.7 million (0.4%)
--- #5. Washington: $9.2 million (0.3%)

While California produces the most strawberries in the United States, Florida accounts for most of the domestic winter crop. Strawberries are cultivated differently for flavor and size, and are commercially grown using the plasticulture process of matted rows. Worth more fresh than frozen, strawberries are also highly produced in North Carolina, where a strawberry association funds annual research for the crop, that’s assisted in breeding more types of the fruit.

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igorstevanovic // Shutterstock

Sugar beets

- Total production: $1.2 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. Idaho: $303.7 million (25.8% of reported production)
--- #2. Minnesota: $288.4 million (24.5%)
--- #3. Nebraska: $204 million (17.3%)
--- #4. Michigan: $150.2 million (12.7%)
--- #5. Montana: $54.6 million (4.6%)

Just like the name, sugar beets are grown for their sweetening properties. Cultivated best in daily temperatures no higher than 80 F, and nightly climates no lower than 40 F, sugar beets are cultivated for livestock grazing as well as for their sucrose content. Planted in deep dirt in the spring and harvested in the fall, sugar beets are also processed to become juice, which has at least a dozen health benefits, including muscle power and exercise endurance.

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Isarapic // Shutterstock

Sugarcane

- Total production: $1.2 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. Louisiana: $590 million (51.1% of reported production)
--- #2. Florida: $536.7 million (46.5%)
--- #3. Texas: $28.2 million (2.4%)

After sugarcane cultivates from a stalk, it undergoes a two-step process of sugar mill crushing and sugar refinery extraction; it becomes granulated, powdered or brown. Sugarcane is also used for the production of ethanol and electricity, keeping the crop in demand. As the largest producer, south Louisiana continues to dedicate more acres to the crop that remains in consumer demand due to America’s love for sweets.

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EsfilPla // Shutterstock

Sunflower

- Total production: $370.4 million
- Top states:
--- #1. South Dakota: $161 million (43.5% of reported production)
--- #2. North Dakota: $131.1 million (35.4%)
--- #3. Minnesota: $21.3 million (5.7%)
--- #4. California: $19.1 million (5.2%)
--- #5. Kansas: $13.2 million (3.6%)

With four separate growth stages by harvest, including vegetative, reproductive, ripening and aging, sunflowers make millions of dollars. Along with being a beautiful flower, it is an oil that’s in demand due to its healthy fats. Sunflower seeds, the fruit of the flower, are also a popular snack and cultivated most in South Dakota, which produced up to 831.6 million pounds in 2019.

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lovelyday12 // Shutterstock

Sweet corn

- Total production: $864.1 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $175.8 million (20.3% of reported production)
--- #2. Florida: $142.9 million (16.5%)
--- #3. Georgia: $111.7 million (12.9%)
--- #4. Washington: $84.1 million (9.7%)
--- #5. Minnesota: $81.9 million (9.5%)

California produces the most corn in the U.S The corn plant that cultivates on a stalk grows ears of the vegetable, that thrives best in warm weather. The Golden State has four regions where it farms its sweetest corn, including the southern desert valley and the central coast. Along with trade troubles, corn took a $3.5 billion loss from overplanting and high yield, resulting in a substantial surplus.

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Lunatictm // Shutterstock

Sweet potatoes

- Total production: $634.2 million
- Top states:
--- #1. North Carolina: $261.6 million (41.2% of reported production)
--- #2. California: $183.4 million (28.9%)
--- #3. Mississippi: $81.9 million (12.9%)
--- #4. Louisiana: $44 million (6.9%)
--- #5. Florida: $38.9 million (6.1%)

Sweet potato consumption in the U.S. grew 42% from 2000 to 2016, reportedly due to a more health-conscious America. North Carolina is the capital of the crop, producing more than any other state since 1971. Grown in long hot summers with minimal frost, sweet potatoes are high in beta carotene and vitamins A and C.

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Chinola // Shutterstock

Tangerines

- Total production: $576 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $556 million (96.5% of reported production)
--- #2. Florida: $20 million (3.5%)

Considered a mandarin orange variety, and primarily produced in California and Florida, tangerines create more than $600 million collectively for both states. Up to one-quarter of California's groves, which have the Mediterranian climate perfect for producing the fruit, are made up of tangerines, which can be eaten alone, in salads, or as a jam.

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Narin Nonthamand // Shutterstock

Taro

- Total production: $2 million
- Top states:
--- #1. Hawaii: $2 million (100% of reported production)

The plant that grows into a root vegetable in subtropical and tropical climates grows only in Hawaii in the United States, with the largest global supplier being Nigeria. There are different edible parts of taro, from the corm to the leaves. The plant is grown in wetlands called lo’i. Known in Hawaii as Kalo, taro is a part of the native Hawaiian diet and considered sacred in the culture.

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nnattalli // Shutterstock

Tobacco

- Total production: $1.1 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. North Carolina: $481.3 million (44% of reported production)
--- #2. Kentucky: $298.2 million (27.3%)
--- #3. Tennessee: $98.7 million (9%)
--- #4. Virginia: $89 million (8.1%)
--- #5. Georgia: $47 million (4.3%)

While the Centers for Disease Control reports smoking has declined significantly since 2005, the tobacco plant remains a top crop, especially in North Carolina. With tariffs increasing from the trade wars, the Tar Heel State’s tobacco farmers have taken a hard hit. The tobacco plant harvests in several ways, either by cutting the stalk and hanging sticks to cure by air, fire, flue or sun, or picking its floppy leaves off as they ripen.

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TOM.RUETHAI // Shutterstock

Tomatoes

- Total production: $1.9 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $1.2 billion (64.3% of reported production)
--- #2. Florida: $344.1 million (18.5%)
--- #3. Tennessee: $54.2 million (2.9%)
--- #4. Ohio: $52.2 million (2.8%)
--- #5. South Carolina: $44.9 million (2.4%)

U.S. consumption of tomatoes comes mainly from fast-food ketchup and sauce making. While supplying the most fresh tomatoes, California also supplies more than 90% of processed tomatoes in the United States, China and India. The United States also consumes the most tomatoes, which are botanically a fruit, but are considered a vegetable high in vitamins C and K and potassium.

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benedektibor // Shutterstock

Walnuts

- Total production: $878.8 million
- Top states:
--- #1. California: $878.8 million (100% of reported production)

There are other uses for walnuts aside from snacking, including creating ink and cleaning. Farmers in California, the only producer of walnuts in the United States, are coming up with even more ways to use the nut, including milk and butter. Additionally, the plant-based diet craze is causing more consumers to seek protein from nuts rather than meat.

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Aleksandar Dickov // Shutterstock

Wheat

- Total production: $9.7 billion
- Top states:
--- #1. North Dakota: $1.8 billion (19.1% of reported production)
--- #2. Kansas: $1.4 billion (14.2%)
--- #3. Montana: $1 billion (10.8%)
--- #4. Washington: $844.6 million (8.7%)
--- #5. Idaho: $539 million (5.6%)

North Dakota is the country’s primary producer of wheat, which is considered a staple food found in cereals, pastas and a variety of baked goods. A member of the grass family, wheat has grown in 42 states since being introduced by the first English colonists, with roughly half being exported. Wheat ranked behind only corn and soybeans in total U.S. acreage in 2016 and 17.
 

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