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50 endangered species that only live in the Amazon Rainforest

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Clément Bardot // Wikimedia Commons

50 endangered species that only live in the Amazon Rainforest

Calling the Amazon rainforest “the lungs of the planet” may appear melodramatic, but it holds some truth: As the largest tropical forest on Earth, the Amazon spans eight countries and 1.4 billion acres. If placed over the United States, the Amazon would stretch from western Pennsylvania to eastern California and from Canada to Mexico. The forest is one of our largest terrestrial carbon sinks, meaning its trees store carbon dioxide that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas. 2019 reports estimate that the Amazon absorbs about 5% of all the carbon dioxide released each year.

And right now, these “lungs” are on fire. More than 74,000 wildfires have blazed across Brazil in the summer of 2019 alone, with about 40,000 of those fires threatening the Amazon. This is the highest rate of fires since Brazil’s National Institute for Space Research began collecting such data, and an 80% increase from summer 2018. 2019’s fires have been tied to Jair Bolsonaro, a climate-change-denying populist and Brazil’s president as of January 2019. Bolsonaro’s changing policies have allowed rampant burning of land around the rainforest to clear land for agriculture; these fires spread easily to the forest itself. The three Brazilian states with the worst increase in fire this year have local governments led by Bolsonaro’s allies, and his government intends to prevent conservation in the rainforest, according to reporting from The Atlantic. Bolsonaro authorized the Brazilian military to fight the fires late in August, but people around the world continue to criticize his role in the environmental catastrophe.

These fires not only pose a threat to a major source of our oxygen; they also threaten approximately one-tenth of the known species on Earth. The Amazon is home to 40,000 plants, 3,000 freshwater fish, hundreds of reptiles, thousands of birds and butterflies, and mammals such as jaguars, sloths, and Amazon river dolphins, according to the World Wildlife Foundation, —and that’s just the species we’ve discovered. The forest is also home to more than 30 million people, including hundreds of indigenous groups, many of whom are now protesting President Bolsonaro. Meanwhile, organizations around the world such as the Rainforest Action Network, Rainforest Foundation, and Amazon Watch work to preserve this habitat.

To explore some of the incredible life threatened by these fires, Stacker used 2019 data from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List to identify 50 endangered animal and plant species that live only in the Amazon Rainforest and the surrounding Amazon Basin. Each species on this list is marked by the IUCN as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered according to the most recent data available for that species.

Read on to learn about and see incredible photos of rare species from the white-bellied spider monkey to the yellow-spotted river turtle.

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Eric Hersman // Wikimedia Commons // Pictured: Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus

Glaucous macaw

- Scientific name: Anodorhynchus glaucus
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified
- Citation: BirdLife International 2016. Anodorhynchus glaucus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22685527A93078084.

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grupolosaraguatos // GBIF

Brumback's night monkey

- Scientific name: Aotus brumbacki
- Red List status: Vulnerable
- Geographic range: Colombia
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Occurs in at least one protected area, included in international legislation, subject to international management / trade controls
- Citation: Morales-Jiménez, A.L., Link, A. & Stevenson, P. 2008. Aotus brumbacki. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T39915A10284518.

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Mogens Trolle // Shutterstock

Nancy Ma’s night monkey

- Scientific name: Aotus nancymaae
- Red List status: Vulnerable
- Geographic range: Brazil (Amazonas), Colombia, Peru
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Occurs in at least one protected area, included in international legislation, subject to international management / trade controls
- Citation: Maldonado, A., Guzman-Caro, D., Shanee, S., Defler, T.R. & Roncancio, N. 2017. Aotus nancymaae (amended version of 2017 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T41540A121725532.

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Clément Bardot // Wikimedia Commons

Blue-throated macaw

- Scientific name: Ara glaucogularis
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Bolivia
- Threatened by: Biological resource use, natural system modifications, invasive & other problematic species/genes/diseases, climate change & severe weather
- Current conservation efforts: Action recovery plan, conservation sites identified, subject to ex-situ conservation, education & awareness programs, subject to international management/trade controls
- Citation: BirdLife International 2018. Ara glaucogularis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T22685542A130868462.

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Ewa // Wikimedia Commons

White-bellied spider monkey

- Scientific name: Ateles belzebuth
- Red List status: Endangered
- Geographic range: Brazil (Roraima, Amazonas), Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, energy production & mining, biological resource use, natural system modifications
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, subject to education & awareness programs, included in international legislation, subject to any international management/trade controls
- Citation: Link, A., Muniz, C., Rylands, A.B., Mourthé, Í., Cornejo, F.M., Urbani, B., Mittermeier, R.A., Stevenson, P.R., Palacios, E., Boubli, J., Shanee, S., de la Torre, S. & Moscoso, P. 2019. Ateles belzebuth. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T2276A17928557.

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The Photographer // Wikimedia Commons

Variegated spider monkey

- Scientific name: Ateles hybridus
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Colombia, Venezuela
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, transportation & service corridors, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Occurs in at least one protected area, subject to ex-situ conservation
- Citation: Urbani, B., Morales, A. L., Link, A. & Stevenson, P. 2008. Ateles hybridus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T39961A10280054.

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Miguelrangeljr // Wikimedia Commons

White-cheeked spider monkey

- Scientific name: Ateles marginatus
- Red List status: Endangered
- Geographic range: Brazil (Mato Grosso, Pará)
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, transportation & service corridors, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Occurs in at least one protected area, included in international legislation, subject to international management / trade controls
- Citation: Mittermeier, R.A., Boubli, J. & Di Fiore, A. 2019. Ateles marginatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T2282A17929907.

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Bernard DUPONT // Flickr

Guiana spider monkey

- Scientific name: Ateles paniscus
- Red List status: Vulnerable
- Geographic range: Brazil (Roraima, Amapá, Pará), French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Occurs in at least one protected area, included in international legislation, subject to international management / trade controls
- Citation: Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. & Boubli, J. 2019. Ateles paniscus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T2283A17929494.

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Alessandro Catenazzi // GBIF

Carabaya stubfoot toad

- Scientific name: Atelopus erythropus
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Bolivia
- Threatened by: Invasive & other problematic species/genes/diseases
- Current conservation efforts: Occurs in at least one protected area
- Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Atelopus erythropus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T54506A89196113.

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Dr. Kenneth Ichiro Miyata // GBIF // Pictured: Quito Stubfoot Toad

Morona-Santiago stubfoot toad

- Scientific name: Atelopus halihelos
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Ecuador
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use, invasive & other problematic species/genes/diseases
- Current conservation efforts: Occurs in at least one protected area
- Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Atelopus halihelos. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T54517A98641706.

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Dr. Kenneth Ichiro Miyata // GBIF

Quito stubfoot toad

- Scientific name: Atelopus ignescens
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Ecuador
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, natural system modifications, invasive & other problematic species/genes/diseases, climate change & severe weather
- Current conservation efforts: Subject to ex-situ conservation
- Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Atelopus ignescens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T54518A98641865.

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Dr. Kenneth Ichiro Miyata // GBIF // Pictured: Longirostris harlequin toad

Gualecenita stubfoot toad

- Scientific name: Atelopus nepiozomus
- Red List status: Endangered
- Geographic range: Ecuador
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, invasive & other problematic species/genes/diseases
- Current conservation efforts: Occurs in at least one protected area
- Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Atelopus nepiozomus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T54533A98642427.

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reptiles4all // Shutterstock

Pebas stubfoot toad

- Scientific name: Atelopus spumarius
- Red List status: Vulnerable
- Geographic range: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, transportation & service corridors, biological resource use, natural system modifications, invasive non-native/alien species/diseases
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area, subject to ex-situ conservation
- Citation: Claudia Azevedo-Ramos, Santiago Ron, Luis A. Coloma, Martín R. Bustamante, Antonio Salas, Rainer Schulte, Stefan Lötters, Ariadne Angulo, Fernando Castro, Jean Lescure, Christian Marty, Enrique La Marca, Marinus Hoogmoed 2010. Atelopus spumarius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T54555A11166846.

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Jenna Welch // GBIF // Pictured: Atelopus tricolor

Bolivian stubfoot toad

- Scientific name: Atelopus tricolor
- Red List status: Vulnerable
- Geographic range: Bolivia, Peru
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases, pollution
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area
- Citation: Salas, A., Ibáñez, R., Catenazzi, A., Chaparro, J.C., Angulo, A., Reichle, S., Köhler, J., De la Riva, I., Lötters, S., Cortez, C. & Arizabal, W. 2004. Atelopus tricolor (errata version published in 2016). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54559A86446362.

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Doug DeNeve // Wikimedia Commons

Bald-headed uakari

- Scientific name: Cacajao calvus
- Red List status: Vulnerable
- Geographic range: Brazil, Peru
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, included in international legislation, subject to any international management / trade controls
- Citation: Veiga, L.M., Bowler, M., Silva Jr., J.S., Queiroz, H.L., Boubli, J.-P. & Rylands, A.B. 2008. Cacajao calvus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T3416A9846330.

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Dick Culbert // Flickr // Pictured: White-eared Titi Monkey

San Martin titi monkey

- Scientific name: Callicebus oenanthe
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Peru
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, transportation & service corridors, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area, recent education & awareness programs, included in international legislation, subject to international management / trade controls
- Citation: Veiga, L., Bóveda-Penalba, A., Vermeer, J., Tello-Alvarado, J.C. & Cornejo, F. 2011. Plecturocebus oenanthe. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T3553A9939083.

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_paVan_ // Flickr

Goeldi’s monkey

- Scientific name: Callimico goeldii
- Red List status: Vulnerable
- Geographic range: Bolivia, Brazil (Amazonas, Acre, Rondônia), Colombia, Peru
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, transportation & service corridors, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, included in international legislation, subject to international management / trade controls
- Citation: Cornejo, F. 2008. Callimico goeldii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species2008: e.T3564A9947398.

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pfaucher // iNaturalist // Pictured: Black-capped Squirrel Monkey

Ka’apor capuchin

- Scientific name: Cebus kaapori
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Brazil (Maranhão, Pará)
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, energy production & mining, transportation & service corridors, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Occurs in at least one protected area, included in international legislation, subject to international management / trade controls
- Citation: Kierulff, M.C.M. & de Oliveira, M.M. 2008. Cebus kaapori. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T40019A10303725.

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Mauricio Rivera Correa // Wikimedia Commons // Pictured: Centrolene altitudinale

Amazon giant glass frog

- Scientific name: Centrolene pipilatum
- Red List status: Endangered
- Geographic range: Ecuador
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use, invasive & other problematic species/genes/diseases, climate change & severe weather
- Current conservation efforts: Occurs in at least one protected area
- Citation: Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Diego Cisneros-Heredia 2004. Centrolene pipilatum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54933A11228482.

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Mikael Bauer // GBIF

Rio Branco antbird

- Scientific name: Cercomacra carbonaria
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Brazil, Guyana
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use, natual system modifications
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area
- Citation: BirdLife International 2018. Cercomacra carbonaria (amended version of 2017 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T22701686A128257225.

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Valdir Hobus // Wikimedia Commons

White-nosed saki

- Scientific name: Chiropotes albinasus
- Red List status: Endangered
- Geographic range: Brazil
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, transportation & service corridors, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, included in international legislation, subject to any international management / trade controls
- Citation: Veiga, L.M., Pinto, L.P., Ferrari, S.F., Rylands, A.B., Mittermeier, R.A. & Boubli, J.-P. 2008. Chiropotes albinasus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T4685A11085894.

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WolfmanSF // Wikimedia Commons

Black bearded saki

- Scientific name: Chiropotes satanas
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Brazil
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use, natural system modifications
- Current conservation efforts: Occurs in at least one protected area, included in international legislation, subject to international management / trade controls
- Citation: Veiga, L.M., Silva Jr., J.S., Ferrari, S.F. & Rylands, A.B. 2008. Chiropotes satanas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T39956A10297662.

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Jonathan Chancasana // Shutterstock

Royal cinclodes

- Scientific name: Cinclodes aricomae
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Peru
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use, human intrusions & disturbance, natural system modifications, pollution, climate change & severe weather
- Current conservation efforts: Action recovery plan, conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area
- Citation: BirdLife International 2018. Cinclodes aricomae (amended version of 2017 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T22724402A128905948.

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Derek Ramsey // Wikimedia Commons

Wattled curassow

- Scientific name: Crax globulosa
- Red List status: Endangered
- Geographic range: Peru
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Action recovery plan, conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area, subjct to ex-situ conservation, subject to education & awareness programs
- Citation: BirdLife International 2016. Crax globulosa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22678537A92777596.

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Unknown // Wikimedia Commons

Belem curassow

- Scientific name: Crax pinima
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Brazil
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Action recovery plan, conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area, subject to ex-situ conservation
- Citation: BirdLife International 2018. Crax pinima (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T45092131A126663305.

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Bernard DUPONT // Wikimedia Commons

Orinoco crocodile

- Scientific name: Crocodylus intermedius
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Colombia, Venezuela
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Action recovery plan, conservation sites identified, subject to ex-situ conservation, successfully reintroduced
- Citation: Balaguera-Reina, S.A., Espinosa-Blanco, A., Antelo, R., Morales-Betancourt, M. & Seijas, A. 2018. Crocodylus intermedius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T5661A3044743.

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Francesco Veronesi // Flickr

Jocotoco antpitta

- Scientific name: Grallaria ridgelyi
- Red List status: Endangered
- Geographic range: Ecuador, Peru
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, energy production & mining, transportation & service corridors, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area
- Citation: BirdLife International 2016. Grallaria ridgelyi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22724628A94874688.

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Benny Mazur // Wikimedia Commons

Golden parakeet

- Scientific name: Guaruba guarouba
- Red List status: Vulnerable
- Geographic range: Brazil
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, transportation & service corridors, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Action recovery plan, conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area, subject to ex-situ conservation, subject to international management / trade controls
- Citation: BirdLife International 2018. Guaruba guarouba. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T22724703A132029835.

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Panegyrics of Granovetter // Flickr

Pink-throated brilliant

- Scientific name: Heliodoxa gularis
- Red List status: Vulnerable
- Geographic range: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, energy production & mining, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area, subject to international management / trade controls
- Citation: BirdLife International 2016. Heliodoxa gularis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22687721A93165925.

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Vincent A. Vos // iNaturalist

Masked antpitta

- Scientific name: Hylopezus auricularis
- Red List status: Vulnerable
- Geographic range: Bolivia
- Threatened by: Human intrusions & disturbance
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area
- Citation: BirdLife International 2018. Hylopezus auricularis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T22728454A132032705.

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cuatrok77 // Flickr

Sky blue poison dart frog

- Scientific name: Hyloxalus azureiventris
- Red List status: Endangered
- Geographic range: Peru
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Occurs in at least one protected area, included in international legislation, subject to international management / trade controls
- Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Hyloxalus azureiventris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T55169A89200449.

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Jorge Andrade // Wikimedia Commons

Amazon river dolphin

- Scientific name: Inia geoffrensis
- Red List status: Endangered
- Geographic range: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, energy production & mining, biological resource use, human intrusions & disturbnce, natural system modifications, pollution
- Current conservation efforts: Action recovery plan, conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area, included in international legislation, subject to any international management / trade controls
- Citation: da Silva, V., Trujillo, F., Martin, A., Zerbini, A.N., Crespo, E., Aliaga-Rossel, E. & Reeves, R. 2018. Inia geoffrensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T10831A50358152.

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Robby Deans // iNaturalist

Lagothrix lugens

- Scientific name: Lagothrix lugens
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Colombia
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, transportation & service corridors, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Occurs in at least one protected area, included in international legislation, subject to international management / trade controls
- Citation: Stevenson, P. & Link, A. 2008. Lagothrix lugens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T39926A10289596.

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Groumfy69 // Wikimedia Commons

Southern tiger cat

- Scientific name: Leopardus guttulus
- Red List status: Vulnerable
- Geographic range: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, transportation & service corridors, biological resource use, natural system modifications, invasive non-native/alien species/diseases
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, area based regional management plan, occurs in at least one protected area, recent education & awareness programs
- Citation: de Oliveira, T., Trigo, T., Tortato, M., Paviolo, A., Bianchi, R. & Leite-Pitman, M.R.P. 2016. Leopardus guttulus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species2016: e.T54010476A54010576.

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tigrillagardenia // Flickr

Northern tiger cat

- Scientific name: Leopardus tigrinus
- Red List status: Vulnerable
- Geographic range: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, energy production & mining, transportation & service corridors, biological resource use, natural system modifications, invasive non-native/alien species/diseases, pollution
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area, included in international legislation, subject to international management / trade controls
- Citation: Payan, E. & de Oliveira, T. 2016. Leopardus tigrinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T54012637A50653881.

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Prof. Sávio Freire Bruno // Wikimedia Commons

Brazilian merganser

- Scientific name: Mergus octosetaceus
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, energy production & mining, biological resource use, human intrusions & disturbance, natural system modifications, pollution
- Current conservation efforts: Action recovery plan, conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area, subject to ex-situ conservation, recent education & awareness programs
- Citation: BirdLife International 2018. Mergus octosetaceus (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T22680482A123509847.

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Totodu74 // Wikimedia Commons // Pictured: Excidobates mysteriosus

Minyobates steyermarki

- Scientific name: Minyobates steyermarki
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Venezuela
- Threatened by: Energy production & mining, biological resource use, pollution
- Current conservation efforts: Occurs in at least one protected area
- Citation: Enrique La Marca, Celsa Señaris 2004. Minyobates steyermarki. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T55202A11264562.

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Santiago Ron // Wikimedia Commons // Pictured: Nymphargus cochranae

Santa Rosa cochran frog

- Scientific name: Nymphargus megacheirus
- Red List status: Endangered
- Geographic range: Colombia, Ecuador
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use, invasive non-native/alien species/diseases, pollution, climate change & severe weather
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area
- Citation: Wilmar Bolívar, Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Ana Almendáriz, Taran Grant 2004. Nymphargus megacheirus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54969A11233360.

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Unknown // Wikimedia Commons

Horned curassow

- Scientific name: Pauxi unicornis
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Bolivia
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, energy production & mining, transportation & service corridors, biological resource use, climate change & severe weather
- Current conservation efforts: Action recovery plan, conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area, recent education & awareness programs
- Citation: BirdLife International 2018. Pauxi unicornis (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T45090397A126746836.

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Unknown // Wikimedia Commons

Caquetá tití monkey

- Scientific name: Plecturocebus caquetensis
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Colombia
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use, human intrusions & disturbance, pollution
- Current conservation efforts: None
- Citation: Defler, T.R. & García, J. 2012. Plecturocebus caquetensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T14699281A14699284.

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D. Gordon E. Robertson // Wikimedia Commons

Magdalena river turtle

- Scientific name: Podocnemis lewyana
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Colombia
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use, natural system modifications
- Current conservation efforts: None
- Citation: Páez, V., Gallego-Garcia, N. & Restrepo, A. 2016. Podocnemis lewyana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T17823A1528580.

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Bernard DUPONT // Flickr

Yellow-spotted river turtle

- Scientific name: Podocnemis unifilis
- Red List status: Vulnerable
- Geographic range: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela
- Threatened by: none
- Current conservation efforts: Included in international legislation, subject to international management / trade controls
- Citation: Tortoise & Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group 1996. Podocnemis unifilis (errata version published in 2016). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1996: e.T17825A97397562.

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David J. Stang // Wikimedia Commons

Giant armadillo

- Scientific name: Priodontes maximus
- Red List status: Vulnerable
- Geographic range: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area, recent education & awareness programs, included in international legislation, subject to international management / trade controls
- Citation: Anacleto, T.C.S., Miranda, F., Medri, I., Cuellar, E., Abba, A.M. & Superina, M. 2014. Priodontes maximus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T18144A47442343.

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John Gerrard Keulemans // Wikimedia Commons

Black-winged trumpeter

- Scientific name: Psophia obscura
- Red List status: Critically endangered
- Geographic range: Brazil
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area
- Citation: BirdLife International 2018. Psophia obscura (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T45470702A125706121.

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Bernard DUPONT // Wikimedia Commons

Giant otter

- Scientific name: Pteronura brasiliensis
- Red List status: Endangered
- Geographic range: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, energy production & mining, transportation & service corridors, biological resource use, invasive & other problematic species/genes/diseases, pollution
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area, recent education & awareness programs, included in international legislation, subject to any international management / trade controls
- Citation: Groenendijk, J., Duplaix, N., Marmontel, M., Van Damme, P. & Schenck, C. 2015. Pteronura brasiliensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T18711A21938411.

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Postdlf // Wikimedia Commons

Saguinus bicolor

- Scientific name: Saguinus bicolor
- Red List status: Endangered
- Geographic range: Brazil (Amazonas)
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, transportation & service corridors, biological resource use, invasive & other problematic species/genes/diseases
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, subject to ex-situ conservation, subject to recent education & awareness programs, included in international legislation, subject to any international management / trade controls
- Citation: Mittermeier, R.A., Boubli, J.-P., Subirá, R. & Rylands, A.B. 2008. Saguinus bicolor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T40644A10348136.

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Bernard DUPONT // Wikimedia Commons

Lowland tapir

- Scientific name: Tapirus terrestris
- Red List status: Vulnerable
- Geographic range: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, included in international legislation, subject to any international management / trade controls
- Citation: Varela, D., Flesher, K., Cartes, J.L., de Bustos, S., Chalukian, S., Ayala, G. & Richard-Hansen, C. 2019. Tapirus terrestris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T21474A45174127.

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sophia_b_lavayen // iNaturalist

Telmatobius hintoni

- Scientific name: Telmatobius hintoni
- Red List status: Vulnerable
- Geographic range: Bolivia
- Threatened by: Biological resource use, pollution
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified
- Citation: Ignacio De la Riva 2010. Telmatobius hintoni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T136017A4229613.

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mattclark72 // iNaturalist // Pictured: Gray Tinamou

Black tinamou

- Scientific name: Tinamus osgoodi
- Red List status: Vulnerable
- Geographic range: Bolivia (resident), Colombia, Peru (breeding), Ecuador (seasonal)
- Threatened by: Agriculture & aquaculture, energy production & mining, biological resource use
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, occurs in at least one protected area
- Citation: BirdLife International 2016. Tinamus osgoodi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22678145A92757567.

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Dirk Meyer // Wikimedia Commons

Amazonian manatee

- Scientific name: Trichechus inunguis
- Red List status: Vulnerable
- Geographic range: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
- Threatened by: Residential & commercial development, agriculture & aquaculture, energy production & mining, transportation & service corridors, biological resource use, human intrusions & disturbnce, natural system modifications, pollution, climate change & severe weather
- Current conservation efforts: Conservation sites identified, area based regional management plan, occurs in at least one protected area, subject to ex-situ conservation, recent education & awareness programs, included in international legislation, subject to any international management / trade controls
- Citation: Marmontel, M., de Souza, D. & Kendall, S. 2016. Trichechus inunguis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22102A43793736.

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