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Countries America has the largest trade deficit with

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Countries America has the largest trade deficit with

Economists have long debated the meaning of a trade deficit—including how much it signals about an economy's health—and those discussions often fall along political lines. Regardless of the actual importance of the trade deficit, President Donald Trump has made reducing the U.S. trade deficit a top priority for his administration. The U.S. Census Bureau reported that the U.S. had a total trade deficit of $878.6 billion in 2018.

Ranked by the top trade deficit, Stacker researched the countries with whom the U.S. has the largest deficit, specifically noting the top “end-use” product categories. As defined, “end-use” is the classification system for U.S.-exported and imported merchandise based on principal use rather than the physical characteristics of the merchandise. End-use codes are assigned by the Bureau of Economic Analysis under the U.S. Department of Commerce.

Trump's trade wars with China and sanctions in several countries like Venezuela and Saudi Arabia are affecting relations with foreign countries. Iraq, which is allied with Iran, stands to lose a lot should sanctions continue. “Iraq is one of those countries caught between the two, having been given a 45-day exemption period by the U.S. before it is expected to halt trade with Iran,” Foreign Policy reported.

Thailand is yet another country that could suffer greatly from the pending trade wars, according to the South Morning China Post, which reports: “with its deep ties to China and solid friendship with the U.S., Thailand must carefully find a balance in this time of U.S.-China tensions.”

Meanwhile, countries like Malaysia—to whom the U.S. owes almost $26 billion—are going on record accusing both the U.S. and China of inevitable long-term damage.

Using U.S. Census data from 2018, Stacker ranked the countries that the U.S. has the largest trade deficit with, from smallest to largest. Only sovereign countries were considered.

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#25. Finland

- Deficit: $5.3 billion (imports to U.S.: $7.2 billion; exports from U.S.: $1.9 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Passenger cars, new and used ($1.7 billion, 23.9%)
--- #2. Paper and paper products ($760.7 million, 10.6%)
--- #3. Pharmaceutical preparations ($756.5 million, 10.6%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Nonferrous metals, other ($170.2 million, 9.1%)
--- #2. Telecommunications equipment ($148.8 million, 7.9%)
--- #3. Passenger cars, new and used ($125.3 million, 6.7%)

Since establishing diplomatic relations with Finland in 1919, severing them in 1944 due to their alliance with Nazi Germany, and reestablishing them in the 1950s, the U.S.' on and off relationship with the country has produced a $5.3 billion deficit in trade. This history has not stopped the two countries from getting along. “In today's conversations, we reaffirm that relations between Finland and the United States have never been stronger,” U.S. Secretary of Defense Jim Mattis said.

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#24. Denmark

- Deficit: $6.3 billion (imports to U.S.: $8.9 billion; exports from U.S.: $2.6 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Pharmaceutical preparations ($4.4 billion, 49.5%)
--- #2. Industrial machines, other ($352.9 million, 4%)
--- #3. Tobacco, waxes, etc. ($278.7 million, 3.1%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Crude oil ($300.0 million, 11.7%)
--- #2. Pharmaceutical preparations ($150.9 million, 5.9%)
--- #3. Medicinal equipment ($141.7 million, 5.5%)

Denmark is one of the rare sovereign countries that has repaid all of its foreign debts, notes Quartz. The U.S. Department of State reports that the U.S. is Denmark's most significant non-European Union trade partner, and the two countries share a healthy and mutually advantageous relationship. Trade metric website World's Top Exports details other chief trading partners with Denmark including Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Norway.

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Marcus Hansson // Flickr

#23. Sweden

- Deficit: $6.9 billion (imports to U.S.: $11.4 billion; exports from U.S.: $4.5 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Passenger cars, new and used ($2 billion, 17.2%)
--- #2. Industrial machines, other ($597.5 million, 5.2%)
--- #3. Pharmaceutical preparations ($528.1 million, 4.6%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Pharmaceutical preparations ($576.1 million, 12.9%)
--- #2. Civilian aircraft, engines, equipment, and parts ($545 million, 12.2%)
--- #3. Minimum value shipments ($212.1 million, 4.7%)

Market data portal Statista reports Sweden's top car exports in 2018 were three Volvo and two Volkswagen models. The percentage of the popular passenger cars imported into the U.S. accounts for the foremost $2 billion and 17.2% of the trade deficit. Volvo is a Chinese-owned Swedish company that manufactures vehicles in America, specifically South Carolina.

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#22. Venezuela

- Deficit: $7.3 billion (imports to U.S.: $13.2 billion; exports from U.S.: $5.9 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Crude oil ($10.4 billion, 78.9%)
--- #2. Fuel oil ($1.3 billion, 9.8%)
--- #3. Petroleum products, other ($863.5 million, 6.6%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Petroleum products, other ($2.9 billion, 49.8%)
--- #2. Fuel oil ($1 billion, 17.4%)
--- #3. Chemicals-organic ($184.9 million, 3.2%)

U.S. imports of Venezuelan crude oil collapsed after relations between the two countries have grown more strained. Venezuela's crude production equals approximately 732,000 to 960,000 barrels per day, and as of late had been distributed to three top U.S. oil refineries including Citgo, Valero, and Chevron.

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Wikimedia Commons

#21. Israel

- Deficit: $8 billion (imports to U.S.: $21.8 billion; exports from U.S.: $13.7 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Gem diamonds ($7.6 billion, 34.7%)
--- #2. Pharmaceutical preparations ($3.6 billion, 16.5%)
--- #3. U.S. goods returned, and reimports ($1.4 billion, 6.4%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Gem diamonds ($4.8 billion, 35.1%)
--- #2. Civilian aircraft, engines, equipment, and parts ($1.5 billion, 10.6%)
--- #3. Industrial machines, other ($718.2 million, 5.2%)

Gem diamonds stand as the significant import and export between the two countries since they signed the Israel-United States Fair Trade Agreement in 1985. U.S. exports to Israel spiked by 456%, according to the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative. Israel, which has the largest diamond trading floor in the world, also imports $3.6 billion in pharmaceutical preparations to the U.S.

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#20. Austria

- Deficit: $9.9 billion (imports to U.S.: $13.5 billion; exports from U.S.: $3.6 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Pharmaceutical preparations ($1.9 billion, 13.9%)
--- #2. Passenger cars, new and used ($1.1 billion, 8.3%)
--- #3. Other foods ($966.5 million, 7.2%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Pharmaceutical preparations ($1.2 billion, 33.3%)
--- #2. Civilian aircraft, engines, equipment, and parts ($266.4 million, 7.5%)
--- #3. Metallurgical grade coal ($190.2 million, 5.3%)

Pharmaceutical preparations including insulin, hormones, and steroids are among the top exports from the U.S. to Austria. Major players in the car industry in Austria include BMW, Saab, and Fiat, according to Austria Export.  

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Shaah Shahidh // Unsplash

#19. Saudi Arabia

- Deficit: $10.5 billion (imports to U.S.: $24.1 billion; exports from U.S.: $13.6 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Crude oil ($21.4 billion, 88.9%)
--- #2. Fuel oil ($678.7 million, 2.8%)
--- #3. Petroleum products, other ($481.9 million, 2%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Passenger cars, new and used ($1.7 billion, 12.7%)
--- #2. Tanks, artillery, missiles, rockets, guns and ammunition ($1.5 billion, 10.8%)
--- #3. Parts for military-type goods ($873.9 million, 6.4%)

The trade deficit with the desert country of Saudi Arabia is directly related to oil and petroleum. “We are really at the mercy of Saudi Arabia like never before, even going back to the 1970s,” John Kilduff, Again Capital founding partner, told the Washington Post. Though the U.S. supplied the country with $248.11 million in bombs, grenades, cartridges, and military parts through February 2019, the U.S. still comes up short in trade dealings by $10.5 billion.

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#18. Iraq

- Deficit: $10.6 billion (imports to U.S.: $11.9 billion; exports from U.S.: $1.3 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Crude oil ($11.8 billion, 99.5%)
--- #2. Fuel oil ($59 million, 0.5%)
--- #3. Tobacco, waxes, etc. ($.4 million, 0%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Wheat ($221.5 million, 16.9%)
--- #2. Passenger cars, new and used ($144.2 million, 11%)
--- #3. Industrial engines ($120.4 million, 9.2%)

Figures from the Office of the U.S. Representative of Trade in 2016 show a trade deficit with Iraq at $4.7 billion. The deficit grew by $5.9 billion in three years to $10.6 billion. Just as sanctions on Iran are negatively affecting the trade of oil with Saudi Arabia, the same is true for Iraq, which is a close ally of Iran.

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#17. Indonesia

- Deficit: $12.6 billion (imports to U.S.: $20.9 billion; exports from U.S.: $8.2 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Apparel, textiles, nonwool or cotton ($2.2 billion, 10.8%)
--- #2. Apparel, household goods - cotton ($2 billion, 9.5%)
--- #3. Fish and shellfish ($1.9 billion, 9.3%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Soybeans ($1 billion, 12.7%)
--- #2. Natural gas liquids ($659.1 million, 8%)
--- #3. Civilian aircraft, engines, equipment, and parts ($602.8 million, 7.3%)

Indonesia recorded a $540 million trade surplus in March 2019 with imports including raw materials and auxiliary goods to the United States, Japan, and China, the Jakarta Post reported. The U.S. may have a trade deficit with Indonesia of $12.6 billion; however, in 2017 the U.S. won a World Trade Organization ruling against Indonesia for import restrictions on plants, animal products, and food. Indonesia appealed and lost.

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Alexandr Gostev // Shutterstock

#16. Russia

- Deficit: $14.1 billion (imports to U.S.: $20.8 billion; exports from U.S.: $6.7 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Fuel oil ($6.7 billion, 32.2%)
--- #2. Crude oil ($2 billion, 9.8%)
--- #3. Steelmaking materials ($1.6 billion, 7.8%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Civilian aircraft, engines, equipment, and parts ($1.9 billion, 28.2%)
--- #2. Other parts and accessories of vehicles ($313.2 million, 4.7%)
--- #3. Passenger cars, new and used ($270.9 million, 4.1%)

Russia gives the U.S. oil, and the U.S., in turn, provides civilian aircraft parts, but trade between the two countries remains in the negative for the U.S. Russia, which also trades heavily with China, Germany, and Ukraine. After oil, the most-traded Russian exports include iron, steel, aluminum, pearls, precious stones, inorganic chemicals, nuclear reactors, and wood charcoal.

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asiastock // Shutterstock

#15. Taiwan

- Deficit: $15.5 billion (imports to U.S.: $45.8 billion; exports from U.S.: $30.2 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Semiconductors ($6.1 billion, 13.3%)
--- #2. Computer accessories ($3.3 billion, 7.3%)
--- #3. Telecommunications equipment ($2.9 billion, 6.4%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Semiconductors ($3.5 billion, 11.6%)
--- #2. Industrial machines, other ($3.4 billion, 11.4%)
--- #3. Crude oil ($3 billion, 10.1%)

The Taiwanese economy is heavily dependant on trade. Congress's think tank, the Congressional Research Service (CRS), reported that in 2018 Taiwan was the U.S.' 11th-largest merchandise trading partner (at $76 billion). While the U.S. is currently in a $15.5 billion trade deficit with Taiwan, the American Chamber of Commerce in Taipei found over half of American companies were optimistic about local economic prospects during 2019.

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Falcon_33 // Flickr

#14. France

- Deficit: $16.2 billion (imports to U.S.: $52.5 billion; exports from U.S.: $36.3 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Engines-civilian aircraft ($5.7 billion, 10.9%)
--- #2. Civilian aircraft ($4.5 billion, 8.5%)
--- #3. U.S. goods returned, and reimports ($4 billion, 7.6%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Civilian aircraft, engines, equipment, and parts ($13.4 billion, 37%)
--- #2. Pharmaceutical preparations ($1.6 billion, 4.4%)
--- #3. Artwork, antiques, stamps, etc. ($1.5 billion, 4.2%)

The U.S. may have had a $16.2 billion trade deficit with France in 2018, but it hasn't stopped the two countries from doing business. France ranked #8 in total trade value with the U.S. through February 2019 at $15.35 billion, according to WorldCity. Both countries' main source of trade with the other is aircraft and related parts.

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Kys951 // Wikimedia Commons

#13. South Korea

- Deficit: $17.9 billion (imports to U.S.: $74.3 billion; exports from U.S.: $56.3 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Passenger cars, new and used ($13.8 billion, 18.6%)
--- #2. Other parts and accessories of vehicles ($6.3 billion, 8.5%)
--- #3. Computer accessories ($5.4 billion, 7.3%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Industrial machines, other ($5.6 billion, 10%)
--- #2. Crude oil ($5.6 billion, 9.9%)
--- #3. Semiconductors ($3.4 billion, 6%)

The U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement, also known as KORUS, went into effect in 2012 after years of negotiation and ratification; however, the U.S. still managed to total $17.9 billion in a trade deficit. In 2017, the trade between the U.S. and Korea was an estimated $154.8 billion, with exports totaling $72.5 billion and imports of $82.3 billion. In 2018, President Trump revised KORUS yet one more time South Korean President Moon Jae-in to remove certain regulatory limitations.

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Norbert Aepli // Wikimedia Commons

#12. Switzerland

- Deficit: $18.9 billion (imports to U.S.: $41.1 billion; exports from U.S.: $22.2 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Pharmaceutical preparations ($14.8 billion, 36%)
--- #2. U.S. goods returned, and reimports ($5.6 billion, 13.6%)
--- #3. Chemicals-organic ($3.3 billion, 8.1%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Nonmonetary gold ($6.8 billion, 30.5%)
--- #2. Artwork, antiques, stamps, etc. ($2.5 billion, 11%)
--- #3. Pharmaceutical preparations ($2.1 billion, 9.3%)

The U.S. and Switzerland don't have a bilateral trade pact, but some experts think they should. “A U.S.-Swiss free-trade agreement uniquely presents a tangible and practical opportunity for moving forward President Donald Trump's proposal for zero tariffs and zero barriers,” D.C.-based think tank The Heritage Foundation wrote. As the 14th largest supplier of goods and imports to the U.S. in 2018, Switzerland's top import to the U.S. is pharmaceutical preparations, and the U.S. main import to them is non-monetary gold.

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anucha sirivisansuwan // Shutterstock

#11. Thailand

- Deficit: $19.3 billion (imports to U.S.: $31.9 billion; exports from U.S.: $12.6 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Computer accessories ($5.9 billion, 18.4%)
--- #2. Telecommunications equipment ($3.4 billion, 10.7%)
--- #3. Automotive tires and tubes ($2.1 billion, 6.6%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Semiconductors ($1.6 billion, 12.6%)
--- #2. Crude oil ($878.6 million, 7%)
--- #3. Telecommunications equipment ($696.5 million, 5.5%)

The South China Morning Post warned that "with its deep ties to China and solid friendship with the U.S., Thailand must carefully find a balance in this time of US-China tensions." That balance could be costly based on WorldCity figures reporting the trade, including computer chips, rubber tires, soybeans, and cellphones, between the U.S. and Thailand—which topped $7 billion through February 2019.

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Pixabay

#10. Canada

- Deficit: $19.8 billion (imports to U.S.: $318.5 billion; exports from U.S.: $298.7 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Crude oil ($60.8 billion, 19.1%)
--- #2. Passenger cars, new and used ($37.5 billion, 11.8%)
--- #3. U.S. goods returned, and reimports ($14.3 billion, 4.5%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Other parts and accessories of vehicles ($22.2 billion, 7.4%)
--- #2. Trucks, buses and special purpose vehicles ($16.9 billion, 5.7%)
--- #3. Passenger cars, new and used ($14.4 billion, 4.8%)

The nearly $20 billion deficit the U.S. has with Canada primarily comes from the import of crude oil to the U.S. and the exchange of vehicles between the two. “Either way, the trade imbalance with Canada is nothing like the $55 billion trade deficit with Mexico or the $385 billion deficit with China,” Time magazine reported. The yearly deficit with Canada has declined sharply since reaching a high of $36 billion in 2014 and has declined by nearly 50% compared to the first quarter of 2018.

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Shamanth kumar // Wikimedia Commons

#9. India

- Deficit: $21.3 billion (imports to U.S.: $54.4 billion; exports from U.S.: $33.1 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Gem diamonds ($9.1 billion, 16.7%)
--- #2. Pharmaceutical preparations ($6.9 billion, 12.7%)
--- #3. Apparel, household goods - cotton ($4.8 billion, 8.8%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Gem diamonds ($5.3 billion, 16.1%)
--- #2. Crude oil ($3 billion, 9.1%)
--- #3. Civilian aircraft, engines, equipment, and parts ($2.6 billion, 8%)

Alluding to India, U.S. Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross forewarned New Delhi officials this May that when one country goes against another one, specifically with restrictive trade policies, there are expected consequences. “We don't believe under the WTO (World Trade Organization) rules that retaliation by India would be appropriate,” he said. The U.S. has a trade deficit with India of upwards of $20 billion, but Ross called attention to the 20% tariff on cell phone parts, routers, and switches that India is charging the U.S.

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Slejven Djurakovic // Unsplash

#8. Malaysia

- Deficit: $26.5 billion (imports to U.S.: $39.4 billion; exports from U.S.: $12.9 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Semiconductors ($17.7 billion, 45%)
--- #2. Telecommunications equipment ($4.9 billion, 12.6%)
--- #3. Computer accessories ($2.9 billion, 7.3%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Semiconductors ($3.8 billion, 29.4%)
--- #2. Civilian aircraft, engines, equipment, and parts ($1.1 billion, 8.2%)
--- #3. Electric apparatus ($676.7 million, 5.3%)

Malaysia International Trade Minister Darell Leiking said no matter what solutions the U.S. and China come up with in the trade wars, the shift in the region's supply chain will make a five- to 10-year impact on world trade, reported the South China Morning Post. Currently, the U.S. is Malaysia's fourth largest trading partner following China, Singapore, and the European Union, according to Trading Economics. Both the U.S. and Malaysia's top import and export "end-use" product is semiconductors.

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Axel Ahoi // Unsplash

#7. Italy

- Deficit: $31.6 billion (imports to U.S.: $54.7 billion; exports from U.S.: $23.2 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Pharmaceutical preparations ($6.1 billion, 11.1%)
--- #2. Passenger cars, new and used ($4.6 billion, 8.4%)
--- #3. Industrial machines, other ($2.6 billion, 4.8%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Pharmaceutical preparations ($4.2 billion, 18.3%)
--- #2. Crude oil ($2.8 billion, 12.2%)
--- #3. Civilian aircraft, engines, equipment, and parts ($1.4 billion, 6.2%)

Along with medicine, motor vehicles, and machines, Italy brought in several other products to the U.S. through February 2019 according to WorldCity, which reported the country ranked #12 in total trade. Wine brought in $276.95 million; leather shoes produced $187.74 million, and travel goods—including handbags, wallets, and jewelry—totaled $184.4 million. Italy's exports increased by 17.15% from 2017 and imports increased by 6.23%.

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Hien Phung Thu // Shutterstock

#6. Vietnam

- Deficit: $39.5 billion (imports to U.S.: $49.2 billion; exports from U.S.: $9.7 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Apparel, textiles, nonwool or cotton ($7 billion, 14.1%)
--- #2. Cell phones and other household goods, n.e.c. ($5.5 billion, 11.2%)
--- #3. Apparel, household goods - cotton ($5.1 billion, 10.3%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Cotton, raw ($1.3 billion, 13.6%)
--- #2. Semiconductors ($1.1 billion, 11.2%)
--- #3. Soybeans ($581.4 million, 6%)

It wasn't until the 1990s that the U.S. began trading with Vietnam, as fallout from the Vietnam War faded. Since then, the U.S. has managed to build a yearly deficit approaching $40 billion. The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative reported that in 2017, trade between the two was at approximately $58.2 billion.

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Sebastian “sebrem” B… // Wikimedia Commons

#5. Ireland

- Deficit: $46.8 billion (imports to U.S.: $57.5 billion; exports from U.S.: $10.7 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Pharmaceutical preparations ($35.9 billion, 62.4%)
--- #2. Cell phones and other household goods, n.e.c. ($5.1 billion, 8.9%)
--- #3. U.S. goods returned, and reimports ($4.8 billion, 8.3%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Pharmaceutical preparations ($2.5 billion, 23.3%)
--- #2. Civilian aircraft, engines, equipment, and parts ($1.9 billion, 17.4%)
--- #3. Computer accessories ($593.1 million, 5.5%)

Pharmaceuticals accounted for over half of the trade deficit between the two countries, with the U.S. importing $25.2 billion more of the product than its total exports to Ireland. The total trade deficit has grown year over year since 2013, a trend that has continued through the first quarter of 2019. Ireland is the European Union's largest net exporter of pharmaceuticals, while cell phones and goods returned accounted for another 17.2% of goods sent to the U.S.

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CAPTAINHOOK // Shutterstock

#4. Japan

- Deficit: $67.6 billion (imports to U.S.: $142.6 billion; exports from U.S.: $75 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Passenger cars, new and used ($40.4 billion, 28.3%)
--- #2. Other parts and accessories of vehicles ($9.9 billion, 7%)
--- #3. Industrial machines, other ($8.6 billion, 6%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Civilian aircraft, engines, equipment, and parts ($5.6 billion, 7.5%)
--- #2. Industrial machines, other ($4.6 billion, 6.1%)
--- #3. Natural gas liquids ($4.4 billion, 5.9%)

While the country remains the U.S.' fourth largest contributor to the American trade deficit, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and President Trump are discussing trade relations, specifically over agriculture and automotive tariffs. Reuters reported in May that President Trump suggested a trade deal could take place at any time. Japanese cars and their parts being sent to the U.S. account for nearly a quarter of Japanese imports to the U.S., at $50.3 billion.

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Sheila Fitzgerald // Shutterstock

#3. Germany

- Deficit: $68.3 billion (imports to U.S.: $125.9 billion; exports from U.S.: $57.7 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Passenger cars, new and used ($18.6 billion, 14.8%)
--- #2. Pharmaceutical preparations ($15.7 billion, 12.5%)
--- #3. Industrial machines, other ($6.8 billion, 5.4%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Civilian aircraft, engines, equipment, and parts ($8.5 billion, 14.7%)
--- #2. Passenger cars, new and used ($5.8 billion, 10.1%)
--- #3. Pharmaceutical preparations ($4.2 billion, 7.3%)

Transportation is key to the trade between the two countries, and the top import and export to each other deals with aircraft and motor vehicles. The U.S. is Germany's fourth-largest import source after China, the Netherlands, and France, according to a 2017 American Express report. As a member of the European Union, Germany's trade relations with the U.S. would fall under the proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership.

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Stan Shebs // Wikimedia Commons

#2. Mexico

- Deficit: $81.5 billion (imports to U.S.: $346.5 billion; exports from U.S.: $265 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Other parts and accessories of vehicles ($47.9 billion, 13.8%)
--- #2. Passenger cars, new and used ($34.1 billion, 9.9%)
--- #3. Trucks, buses, and special purpose vehicles ($33.8 billion, 9.7%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Other parts and accessories of vehicles ($21.9 billion, 8.3%)
--- #2. Petroleum products, other ($20.4 billion, 7.7%)
--- #3. Electric apparatus ($16.6 billion, 6.3%)

Mexico ranked #1 in total trade value with the U.S. through February 2019, totaling $97.42 billion, according to WorldCity. Vehicles were the primary source of imports to the U.S., accounting for well over $100 billion, while exports of vehicle parts to Mexico were $21.9 billion.

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humphery // Shutterstock

#1. China

- Deficit: $419.2 billion (imports to U.S.: $539.5 billion; exports from U.S.: $120.3 billion)
- Top imported goods to U.S.:
--- #1. Cell phones and other household goods, n.e.c. ($71.8 billion, 13.3%)
--- #2. Computers ($47.3 billion, 8.8%)
--- #3. Telecommunications equipment ($33.9 billion, 6.3%)

- Top exported goods from U.S.:
--- #1. Civilian aircraft, engines, equipment, and parts ($18.2 billion, 15.1%)
--- #2. Semiconductors ($7.1 billion, 5.9%)
--- #3. Industrial machines, other ($6.8 billion, 5.7%)

The escalating trade war between the two countries didn't stop the U.S. from running up a $419.2 billion trade deficit in 2018. President Donald Trump has vowed to reduce that number, and according to Reuters, it has fallen to a five-year low in March 2019. Technology is the primary driver behind the trend, with the U.S. relying heavily on cell phones and computers from China, totaling $119.1 billion.

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