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States that give the most corporate subsidies

  • States that give the most corporate subsidies
    1/ Pixabay

    States that give the most corporate subsidies

    The scramble to secure Amazon's second North American headquarters is an example of the problem with subsidizing corporations. With the deal ultimately split between Arlington, Va., and Queens, N.Y., there was public outcry about the cost of winning. For New York, the complaints were so loud that Amazon ultimately pulled out.

    Corporate subsidies include offering tax breaks, cash grants, or refunds in tax revenues in exchange for an investment in a community from a corporation. Those who support the concept argue that corporate subsidies can create jobs and infrastructure investments for communities that don't have the capability to provide them. The partnerships could, theoretically, jumpstart depressed communities and lay the infrastructure needed for future job growth.

    Those who oppose corporate subsidies argue they are a form of wealth isolation and socialism. Equating the subsidies to buying jobs, some argue that they are the result of wealthy companies and individuals lobbying to keep government funds out of programs that could support the needy or build infrastructure.

    Nevertheless, corporate subsidies play a major part in U.S. politics. Stacker looked at data provided by Good Jobs First, an independent advocacy group, to determine which states have paid the most in corporate subsidies. Good Jobs First sourced its data from government agency websites and from Freedom of Information Act requests to the various states.

    The data provided are from 2014 to 2018 and ties were broken based on that information. Good Jobs First only reported disclosed subsidy data, which may or may not reflect the actual subsidies in the state. Because of different open-disclosure rules among the states, the reported numbers may not be accurate, but are accurate according to the data sources publicly available. Wyoming subsidy data were not available after 2013 and therefore not included in this report.

    Read on to learn what states do to encourage companies to do business with them.

    You may also like: Most valuable companies in the world

  • #50. North Dakota
    2/ Lindsey G // Wikimedia Commons

    #50. North Dakota

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $0 million
    - Number of subsidies: 45
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 0%

    North Dakota is not known for its corporations, with its largest one, Union Holdings, having only 9,100 employees. Thus, it isn't shocking that North Dakota has the lowest corporate subsidies rate. With farming and oil extraction two of the state's top industries, the state rates high in farm and oil subsidies.

  • #49. Nebraska
    3/ Iulus Ascanius // Wikimedia Commons

    #49. Nebraska

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $0 million
    - Number of subsidies: 189
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 0%

    It is misleading to think that Nebraska is a subsidy-free state, based on publicly disclosed numbers: It's not. With Nebraska passing its corporate incentive package in the 1980s to keep ConAgra Foods, the state has one of the most extensive automatic subsidies package in the nation, with $295 million given in credits and refunds in 2017. Fun fact: ConAgra would eventually leave Nebraska after collecting more than $160 billion in corporate subsidy payments.

  • #48. Hawaii
    4/ BrendelSignature // Wikimedia Commons

    #48. Hawaii

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $0 million
    - Number of subsidies: 287
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 0%

    With food, material, transportation, and labor costs significantly higher in Hawaii than in the contiguous 48 states, it would make sense that Hawaii corporations receive tax carveouts to remain competitive. However, firms specializing in technology research and development are the only firms that gets this type of assistance, with most other industries paying higher taxes than the national average, according to the Hawai'i Free Press, an advocacy independent newspaper.

  • #47. Minnesota
    5/ Acroterion // Wikimedia Commons

    #47. Minnesota

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $0.2 million
    - Number of subsidies: 4
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 100%
    - Largest single subsidy: Motek-Team Industries ($187,000)

    Most of Minnesota's largest corporations (3M, Best Buy, Target, U.S. Bank) are service- or technology-based, largely exempting the state from manufacturing incentives. This may change under Minnesota's new governor, who is seeking to expand technology sector corporate incentives, according to Tech.MN. The nonprofit online newspaper MINNPost reported that all states but South Dakota pay more in corporate subsidies per capita than Minnesota.

  • #46. South Dakota
    6/ USDA NRCS South Dakota // Wikimedia Commons

    #46. South Dakota

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $0.4 million
    - Number of subsidies: 82
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 90%
    - Largest single subsidy: Dakota State University ($32,000)

    Like many northern Midwest states, South Dakota firms receive more in farming subsidies than corporate subsidies. Though money has been used indirectly to support private companies. In one case, a large grant to the state's transportation department was almost exclusively used for roads supporting a new ethanol plant.

  • #45. West Virginia
    7/ Harry Schaefer // Wikimedia Commons

    #45. West Virginia

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $0.9 million
    - Number of subsidies: 105
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 39%
    - Largest single subsidy: Gestamp WV ($232,541)

    West Virginia is a state that heavily depends on federal aid. The push by the Trump administration to subsidize the coal industry reflects the debate between providing support to an industry that has changed over offering retraining and educational support to affected workers. It also is an example of how corporate subsidies tend to be political in nature. However, West Virginia's low ranking reflects the state's weak gross domestic product.

  • #44. New Hampshire
    8/ Jared C. Benedict // Wikimedia Commons

    #44. New Hampshire

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $3.6 million
    - Number of subsidies: 227
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 100%
    - Largest single subsidy: NH Auto Dealers Association ($69,970)

    New Hampshire is historically unfriendly to corporate subsidies. As it doesn't have a state sales or income tax, New Hampshire typically feels that corporations do not need additional incentives to locate there. However, the state does offer private corporation support via government partnerships and municipal incentives.

  • #43. Vermont
    9/ Jonathanking // Wikimedia Commons

    #43. Vermont

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $6 million
    - Number of subsidies: 53
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 72%
    - Largest single subsidy: Cabot Hosiery Mills ($1.5 million)

    Because Vermont is small, it simply does not spend as much as its neighbors New York and Massachusetts on corporate subsidies. However, recent news that Vermont would pay $10,000 for remote workers to move to the state shows it is willing to pay money to help expand the state's tax base.

  • #42. Idaho
    10/ Tamanoeconomico // Wikimedia Commons

    #42. Idaho

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $11.2 million
    - Number of subsidies: 27
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 100%
    - Largest single subsidy: McCain Foods ($2.5 million)

    Predominately a farming and mining state, Idaho has one of the best costs of doing business in the country. With a top corporate tax rate that matches the top individual tax rate, Idaho has a slate of tax subsidies that is proving to be counterproductive because of the state's limited number of skilled workers.

  • #41. Montana
    11/ David Broad // Wikimedia Commons

    #41. Montana

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $12.5 million
    - Number of subsidies: 464
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 100%
    - Largest single subsidy: Blue Marble Biomaterials ($670,272)

    Montana's corporate subsidies are largely for farming. But the state also offers a large array of corporate incentives. These tax programs, as of 2015, make up the lion's share of Montana's involvement in business development.

  • #40. New Mexico
    12/ Miosotis Jade // Wikimedia Commons

    #40. New Mexico

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $20.5 million
    - Number of subsidies: 155
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 91%
    - Largest single subsidy: Lowe's Customer Support Center ($1.8 million)

    Like many other states, New Mexico has offered custom tax deals to attract major national companies to the state. The state's largest subsidized deal was a Lowe's Customer Service Center, which brought 600 jobs to the Albuquerque area as of 2017. The subsidy reflects an aggressive state incentive program designed to draw attract new businesses.

  • #39. Kansas
    13/ Andrew Peterson // Wikimedia Commons

    #39. Kansas

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $62.5 million
    - Number of subsidies: 108
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 93%
    - Largest single subsidy: Cerner Corp ($48.5 million)

    Kansas reflects the challenges in tracking and identifying corporate subsidies programs. Despite Good Jobs First reporting that Cerner Corp. was the state's largest subsidies recipient, General Motors—which runs manufacturing plants in Kansas—received $417 million in state subsidies and from federal authorities as of 2015. However, as General Motors is run out of state, much of GM's subsidies are not subject to Kansas's open reporting requirements.

  • #38. Delaware
    14/ Tim Kiser // Wikimedia Comons

    #38. Delaware

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $65.8 million
    - Number of subsidies: 140
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 100%
    - Largest single subsidy: E.I. DuPont Nemours and Co. ($9.6 million)

    A hub for incorporation because of the state's favorable business tax laws, Delaware is the de facto home of JPMorgan Chase, DuPont, and many of the largest corporations in the country. Despite the DuPont family living in Delaware for centuries, the state still had to put together a generous incentive package to keep two of the three spin-offs from DuPont's merger with Dow. The move saved more than 1,700 jobs, staving off what would have been the largest single layoff in state history.

  • #37. Alaska
    15/ Luca Galuzzi // Wikimedia Commons

    #37. Alaska

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $68.4 million
    - Number of subsidies: 26
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 38%
    - Largest single subsidy: Cornucopia Oil Gas Company ($39.9 million)

    Alaska's Permanent Fund, derived from the state's oil profits from oil mining, is the only state program in the country that pays an annual dividend to its residents. The fund was also used to pay cash tax subsidies to oil companies, a practice that officially ended in 2017.

  • #36. Rhode Island
    16/ Morrow Long // Wikimedia Commons

    #36. Rhode Island

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $111.1 million
    - Number of subsidies: 98
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 100%
    - Largest single subsidy: CVS Pharmacy ($19.1 million)

    Rhode Island has comprehensive public disclosure laws for corporate subsidies, and the state has had to rely on subsidies significantly. While the state has one of the nation's most educated workforces, poor infrastructure—the worst among Northeastern states—a high cost of living and high taxes can discourage new businesses from setting up shop in the smallest state in the nation.

  • #35. Maine
    17/ Jubileejourney // WIkimedia Commons

    #35. Maine

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $140.7 million
    - Number of subsidies: 4,194
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 97%
    - Largest single subsidy: Verso Paper ($3.2 million)

    The right-leaning think tank Mercatus Center at George Mason University estimated in 2018 that if Maine were to dump its corporate subsidies, the state's corporate income tax could be reduced by 25.3%. This is because of the high cost of the subsidies, which is usually met by raising the taxes on nonsubsidized businesses. The need to keep jobs in the state has largely meant that a few large companies received benefits many of the state's small businesses had to pay for.

  • #34. Arizona
    18/ David Monniaux // WIkimedia Commons

    #34. Arizona

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $167.9 million
    - Number of subsidies: 252
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 100%
    - Largest single subsidy: Raytheon Company ($24 million)

    State tax subsidies took about $4 billion from the Arizona general fund in 2016, according to one blog's analysis. With corporate tax cuts continuously being phased in until 2019, the effects of the cuts could cut the already cash-starved state of needed funding for years to come. This didn't stop Tucson from trying to get Amazon to set up its second North American headquarters there.

  • #33. District of Columbia
    19/ Andrew Bossi // Wikimedia Commons

    #33. District of Columbia

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $170.5 million
    - Number of subsidies: 314
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 100%
    - Largest single subsidy: Arena Stage ($12.6 million)

    The District of Columbia functions as a city, a state, and a Congress-controlled territory. Much of D.C.'s tax subsidies come in the form of Payment In Lieu Of Taxes (PILOT) deals, in which a company agrees to make a payment to the general fund instead of paying property taxes for a set period. Along with tax increment financing (TIF), this has been a driver for the district's business growth. However, poor management of these programs has been an expensive problem, according to Good Jobs First. In one case, a hotel received a PILOT deal for promising 300 jobs; it instead delivered 90 jobs, at a projected cost of $500,000 per job, according to an opinion column by Brent Gardner, vice president of Government Affairs of Americans for Prosperity.

  • #32. Georgia
    20/ WheresMyFC // Wikimedia Commons

    #32. Georgia

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $183.7 million
    - Number of subsidies: 119
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 68%
    - Largest single subsidy: Anthem ($50.9 million)

    To understand corporate subsidizing in Georgia, one should look at the funding of the Atlanta Falcons' Mercedes-Benz Stadium, which cost Georgia residents more than $700 million. This is the most paid by public funding for any NFL stadium, according to Business Insider. Despite only being a $200 million project, owners of the Falcons placed a “waterfall fund” clause in the agreement, putting taxpayers in the position of paying for all future upgrades to the stadium. This immediately increased the price. Fear of losing the Falcons and all the associated tax revenues placed the state into a no-win situation, according to The Guardian; it will likely pump money into the stadium virtually forever.

  • #31. Colorado
    21/ Jeffrey Beall // Wikimedia Commons

    #31. Colorado

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $235.6 million
    - Number of subsidies: 8,028
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 100%
    - Largest single subsidy: Northern Colorado Wind Holdings ($10.6 million)

    Colorado is another state that made a pitch for Amazon's HQ2. Colorado's corporate subsidy spending was about $1 billion in 2012, according to The New York Times, and it is thought that the state has not significantly reduced its subsidizing activities since then. In 2017, the City of Longmont authorized $6.5 million for a new Smucker's plant, for example.

  • #30. Washington
    22/ Jeremy Elson // Wikimedia Commons

    #30. Washington

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $257.8 million
    - Number of subsidies: 4,002
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 44%
    - Largest single subsidy: Portland General Electric 1 ($23.4 million)

    Washington is the home of Boeing, the largest recipient of federal subsidies in the nation. Other large subsidies recipients in the state include Microsoft, National Frozen Foods, Amgen, Orca Bay Seafoods, and Weyerhaeuser. Data from Good Jobs First, however, is limited to state subsidies, though, explaining the rating.

  • #29. Utah
    23/ Pasteur // Wikimedia Commons

    #29. Utah

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $263.2 million
    - Number of subsidies: 39
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 100%
    - Largest single subsidy: Facebook ($150 million)

    Utah has given out tens of millions of dollars in corporate subsidies, though state lawmakers don't know which businesses have gotten the money, according to a 2017 report by KUTV. For instance, the TV station reported, an unidentified group of companies simply titled “Machinery, Equipment or Parts” according to records in the Legislative Research and General Counsel Office records received $55 million. The Utah Tax Commission, citing confidentiality concerns, refused to disclose company identities. The largest disclosed subsidy is the projected $150 million in incentives for a Facebook data center south of Salt Lake City—based on the potential for more than $850 million in financial investment for the region and the employment of 30 to 50 people.

  • #28. South Carolina
    24/ mogollon_1 // Wikimedia Commons

    #28. South Carolina

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $290.9 million
    - Number of subsidies: 126
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 44%
    - Largest single subsidy: Volvo ($212 million)

    Good Jobs First pointed out that South Carolina's corporate subsidization plan—which includes a $208 million deal with the promise to hire 4,000 workers by 2030—may come at the cost of the state's education budget.

  • #27. Virginia
    25/ Amanda Lucidon // Official White House Photo

    #27. Virginia

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $304.1 million
    - Number of subsidies: 1,141
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 92%
    - Largest single subsidy: Micron Technology ($70 million)

    In January, the Virginia House of Delegates approved a subsidies plan worth up to $750 million over 15 years for Amazon's planned headquarters in Arlington. The deal promises to add 25,000 new employees to the area. In the same session, the House Appropriations Committee approved $70 million for Micron Technologies to expand its semiconductor plant, which would add 1,100 high-paying jobs to the plant's existing 1,300 positions.

  • #26. Arkansas
    26/ Nick Juhasz // Wikimedia Commons

    #26. Arkansas

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $332 million
    - Number of subsidies: 336
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 100%
    - Largest single subsidy: Shandong Sun Paper Industry ($167.5 million)

    Arkansas maintains a Quick Action Closing Fund, which allows the state to issue cash grants to entice businesses to come to and stay in Arkansas. As of 2018, the fund has received about $176 million and is credited with creating or saving 20,000 jobs for the state. However, some argue that costs associated with the fund may outweigh its benefits.

  • #25. Pennsylvania
    27/ Ron Reiring // Wikimedia Commons

    #25. Pennsylvania

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $508.6 million
    - Number of subsidies: 3,544
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 100%
    - Largest single subsidy: Em Ache Productions ($23.4 million)

    From 2007 to 2016, Pennsylvania ranked #1 for the most corporate subsidies given. In that period, according to the pro free-market Commonwealth Foundation, the state gave nearly $6 billion, including $20 million to keep Aramark in Philadelphia, $600 million in sports stadium construction, $250 million per year to support the horse racing industry, and $65 million a year for film production.

  • #24. Iowa
    28/ Bohao Zhao // Wikimedia Commons

    #24. Iowa

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $636.4 million
    - Number of subsidies: 168
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 100%
    - Largest single subsidy: Apple ($213.9 million)

    Despite Apple being based in California, Iowa offered the computer manufacturer—the wealthiest company in the United States—over $208 million in tax savings to set up a data facility that would offer 50 jobs and up to $100 million in local infrastructure. Some have been skeptical of such deals for corporations.

  • #23. Illinois
    29/ Jonrev // Wikimedia Commons

    #23. Illinois

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $674 million
    - Number of subsidies: 910
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 87%
    - Largest single subsidy: Amazon ($83.1 million)

    Illinois has a poor history with corporate subsidies. Under its EDGE corporate tax credit, the state has given more than $900 million each to Sears, Mitsubishi, and Motorola Mobility—all resulting in loss of jobs and closed facilities, according to Curtis Black, an opinion writer at the Chicago Reporter. Amazon's use of the credit to build new warehouses in Joliet, Monee, and Aurora could repeat this pattern. The credit has a two-thirds fail rate as of 2015, with 79 recipients reporting a loss of 23,369 jobs.

  • #22. Missouri
    30/ Daniel Schwen // Wikimedia Commons

    #22. Missouri

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $690.7 million
    - Number of subsidies: 365
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 92%
    - Largest single subsidy: Boeing ($229 million)

    Even though Boeing is a Washington State-based company and the reigning king of federal subsidies, it still was able to secure $229 million from Missouri. Receiving the money is based on a promise to maintain current employment levels of 14,500 in the St. Louis area until 2033, with the company receiving a bonus should it add 2,000 jobs. Boeing is building its 777X aircraft in the state.

  • #21. Ohio
    31/ EEJCC // Wikimedia Commons

    #21. Ohio

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $739.1 million
    - Number of subsidies: 2,256
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 94%
    - Largest single subsidy: General Electric ($98 million)

    Like many Northeastern states, Ohio depends on tax subsidies to promote job growth. For example, General Electric, which relocated its Global Operations Center to Cincinnati, received $98 million. For the 300 jobs gained, this means Ohio paid about $326,000 per job.

  • #20. Massachusetts
    32/ Matthias Rosenkranz // Wikimedia Commons

    #20. Massachusetts

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $766.3 million
    - Number of subsidies: 2,367
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 99%
    - Largest single subsidy: General Electric ($145 million)

    Ohio is not the only state from which General Electric sought a tax break. A move of its headquarters from Connecticut to Boston won the company subsidies of up to $145 million, costing Boston and Massachusetts about $181,250 for each of the 800 jobs gained. This does not include corporate tax savings, estimated to take the company's tax burden to zero.

  • #19. North Carolina
    33/ Jmturner // GoodFreePhotos

    #19. North Carolina

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $858 million
    - Number of subsidies: 3,732
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 99%
    - Largest single subsidy: Novo Nordisk ($109.9 million)

    North Carolina's renaissance as a tech innovator came with extensive corporate subsidies. While the state typically does not offer major packages to attract new companies, tax offsets and legislative carveouts—such as rolling back requirements for corporate subsidies—have been used in recent years. Most recently, these methods were employed to attract Apple to the state.

  • #18. Tennessee
    34/ Imilious // Wikimedia Commons

    #18. Tennessee

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $875.6 million
    - Number of subsidies: 3,315
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 27%
    - Largest single subsidy: Volkswagen ($263.3 million)

    Tennessee law prevents the public from knowing which companies receive tax incentives, when they get them, if the money is for hiring or investment promises, and how much they receive. However, a proposed new law, SB 0513, seeks to require accountability in the corporate subsidies process.

  • #17. Kentucky
    35/ Ubi Desperare Nescio // Wikimedia Commons

    #17. Kentucky

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $877.3 million
    - Number of subsidies: 1,741
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 97%
    - Largest single subsidy: Amazon ($75 million)

    Despite the Kentucky state budget being in austerity mode, the state still found a way to offer money to corporate firms. The $117 million Amazon has received from the state since 2000 is an example. It is estimated that taxpayers lost more than $700 million in sales tax from the deal, according to Robert B. Engel, chief spokesman for the Free & Fair Markets Initiative, who wrote an opinion column on the issue for the Louisville Courier Journal.

  • #16. Florida
    36/ Diego Delso // Wikimedia Commons

    #16. Florida

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $917.8 million
    - Number of subsidies: 533
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 100%
    - Largest single subsidy: Northrop Grumman ($471 million)

    Promising 1,800 jobs, Florida in 2014 touted a nearly $500 million megadeal for Northrop Grumman in Brevard County. The deal would expand the company's Manned Aircraft Design Center of Excellence in Melbourne and Aircraft Integration Center of Excellence in St. Augustine.

  • #15. Maryland
    37/ GoodFreePhotos

    #15. Maryland

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $1.1 billion
    - Number of subsidies: 1,069
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 90%
    - Largest single subsidy: Sagamore Development ($660 million)

    In 2018, Maryland offered Amazon $6.5 billion in tax incentives to bring its HQ2 to Baltimore, the largest offer the company received from any state when added to the additional $2 billion in infrastructure improvements also proposed. The offer was rejected.

  • #14. Texas
    38/ WhisperToMe // Wikimedia Commons

    #14. Texas

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $1.2 billion
    - Number of subsidies: 260
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 78%
    - Largest single subsidy: Exxon Mobil and Saudi Basic Industries Corp. ($460 million)

    Texas is oil country and it shouldn't surprise anyone that the state claims the largest oil subsidies in the nation. Texas offers as much in oil subsidies—about $3 billion in 2017—as the federal government, according to advocacy organization Oil Change International. Interestingly, ExxonMobil, for instance, is on record denying receiving government subsidies.

  • #13. Oklahoma
    39/ Reservoirhill // Wikimedia Commons

    #13. Oklahoma

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $1.3 billion
    - Number of subsidies: 1,888
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 100%
    - Largest single subsidy: Koch Nitrogen ($148.7 million)

    In a twist of irony, Charles Koch, CEO of Koch Industries, the second-largest private company in the United States, has railed against farm subsidies. But a company subsidiary, Koch Nitrogen, is the largest receiver of subsidies in Oklahoma, despite the state being strapped for cash.

  • #12. Mississippi
    40/ Magnolia677 // Wikimedia Commons

    #12. Mississippi

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $1.3 billion
    - Number of subsidies: 195
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 81%
    - Largest single subsidy: Continental Tire ($595.5 million)

    One of the poorest states in the country, Mississippi has given subsidy money to companies in an attempt to attract jobs despite a lack of infrastructure or highly educated labor force. This includes $1.3 billion the state gave Nissan in 2012 and nearly $600 million in 2017 for a new plant for South Carolina-based Continental Tires in Hinds County. In the Continental Tires deal, Mississippi was promised 2,500 jobs for an investment of $1.45 billion.

  • #11. Connecticut
    41/ Elipongo // Wikimedia Commons

    #11. Connecticut

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $1.4 billion
    - Number of subsidies: 1,401
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 72%
    - Largest single subsidy: United Technologies Corp ($400 million)

    Connecticut's United Technologies Corp. received a $400 million deal to expand its headquarters and facilities, with the only requirement being that the company will not leave the state for 15 years. The state's corporate development program, First Five Plus, has given loans worth about $248 million, grants worth $129 million, and $141 million in tax abatements for 19 companies in exchange for 4,900 new jobs and 30,000 retained jobs.

  • #10. Alabama
    42/ Wikimedia Commons

    #10. Alabama

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $1.4 billion
    - Number of subsidies: 65
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 95%
    - Largest single subsidy: Toyota-Mazda ($900 million)

    Like Mississippi, Alabama has cast its fate on attracting out-of-state businesses, despite significant infrastructure and labor-training problems. In exchange for between $800 million and $900 million, for example, Alabama secured an investment of $1.6 billion and 4,000 jobs from Toyota and Mazda for a new manufacturing facility in Huntsville.

  • #9. Nevada
    43/ Planet Labs, Inc. // Wikimedia Commons

    #9. Nevada

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $1.4 billion
    - Number of subsidies: 199
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 97%
    - Largest single subsidy: Tesla Motors ($1.3 billion)

    Nevada finds itself in a tech renaissance, with northern Nevada emerging as the new “Silicon Valley.” This is fueled by corporate subsidies, such as the $1.3 billion megadeal with Tesla, which amounts to 20 years free of sales taxes and 10 years without property taxes for the company in exchange for creating 6,500 jobs directly for Tesla and 22,700 total jobs for the state.

  • #8. Michigan
    44/ Andrea_44 // Wikmedia Commons

    #8. Michigan

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $1.8 billion
    - Number of subsidies: 955
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 95%
    - Largest single subsidy: Bedrock Detroit ($618 million)

    Michigan's auto industry has traditionally received major state and federal tax incentives because of its importance to the national economy. However, since the auto industry bailout, there had been less direct subsidization of the Big Three U.S. automakers (GM, Ford, and Chrysler). Instead, the largest subsidy deal in Michigan's history is going toward renovation of a significant part of Detroit's downtown.

  • #7. California
    45/ Alan Radecki // Wikimedia Commons

    #7. California

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $2.7 billion
    - Number of subsidies: 1,786
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 93%
    - Largest single subsidy: Lockheed Martin ($420 million)

    California is the richest state in the country; it has traditionally felt it necessary to offer incentives to promote business growth, a standard rarely questioned, according to an opinion column by Dan Walters in The Sacramento Bee. The largest subsidy, $420 million to Lockheed Martin for a stealth bomber development plant, is part of $1 billion in tax benefits for the firm since 1996.

  • #6. Oregon
    46/ M.O. Stevens // Wikimedia Commons

    #6. Oregon

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $2.8 billion
    - Number of subsidies: 2,515
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 97%
    - Largest single subsidy: Intel ($2 billion)

    Intel is Oregon's largest employer and a major contributor to the state's gross domestic product. Accordingly, it would make sense for Oregon to offer Intel something to stay in the state. However, Intel's $100 billion investment in the state, in exchange for $2 billion in tax abatements without a new job commitment, raised more than a few eyebrows.

  • #5. Indiana
    47/ Momoneymoproblemz // GoodFreePhotos

    #5. Indiana

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $3 billion
    - Number of subsidies: 3,552
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 100%
    - Largest single subsidy: General Motors ($169.1 million)

    President Donald Trump's foray in corporate subsidizing with the heralded, but ultimately failed attempt to retain jobs at the UTC Carrier plant in Indiana offers a glimpse into the dangers of governments offering money to businesses without a concrete written promise for the return on investment. With Indiana paying most of its economic development money to just a few big corporations, what happened with Carrier revealed that Indiana's corporate giving is largely unmonitored and politically driven.

  • #4. New York
    48/ Pixabay

    #4. New York

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $3.8 billion
    - Number of subsidies: 9,032
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 99%
    - Largest single subsidy: SolarCity Corp. ($750 million)

    New York's winning, and later losing, Amazon's HQ2 project, which would have meant paying the largest subsidy in the state's history at $3 billion, reflects the turning of a page in corporate subsidies for New York. While the state has a well-defined economic development plan, there is now pressure for it to no longer create special tax packages for companies.

  • #3. Wisconsin
    49/ Nadkachna // Wikimedia Commons

    #3. Wisconsin

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $5.1 billion
    - Number of subsidies: 598
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 86%
    - Largest single subsidy: Foxconn ($4.8 billion)

    The $4.1 billion Foxconn manufacturing plant megadeal negotiated by then-Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker was meant to yield $10 billion that would create 13,000 jobs. It also was supposed to cost $3 billion, but ultimately grew by more than $1 billion. Now, according to Vox Media's The Verge, Foxconn is promising a smaller plant—a Generation 6, instead of a Generation 10.5, with most of the manufacturing done by robots.

  • #2. New Jersey
    50/ Gary Miotla // Wikimedia Commons

    #2. New Jersey

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $6.4 billion
    - Number of subsidies: 338
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 100%
    - Largest single subsidy: Holtec International ($260 million)

    New Jersey has given $11 billion to 400 companies since 2005. In an audit ordered by Gov. Phil Murphy, 1 in 5 of the jobs reported created or retained by the subsidies could not be confirmed, with one company winning $29 million showing a decrease in jobs.

  • #1. Louisiana
    51/ SASOL // Wikimedia Commons

    #1. Louisiana

    - Total disclosed subsidy value: $11.3 billion
    - Number of subsidies: 2,023
    - Subsidies with disclosed values: 100%
    - Largest single subsidy: Sasol USA Corporation ($1.5 billion)

    The leader in disclosed corporate subsidies, Louisiana since 2008 has given out more money than any other state, even with state government operating under austerity conditions and the state facing crippling infrastructure problems, such as a crumbling road system.

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