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Countries with the biggest trade deficits

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Andrii Yalanskyi // Shutterstock

Countries with the biggest trade deficits

During his first Inaugural address, Thomas Jefferson said, “It is proper you should understand what I deem the essential principles of our Government... Equal and exact justice to all men, of whatever state or persuasion, religious or political; peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none.”

One of the most important forms of international relations is trade, which can serve as a conduit for cultural and political understanding between nations while easing tensions. While many foreigners may be unaware of American politics or norms, most are familiar with American brands such as Levi's, Kellogg's, Ford, Microsoft, Facebook, and Disney.

Current headlines about a potential trade war between the U.S. and China has many examining the trade deficits of the U.S. and other countries around the world. While trade deficits could reflect political decisions to foster foreign assistance through international trade (as in the case of the U.S.), a trade deficit typically reflects a weak or declining economy.

Stacker has looked at global import and export data from the CIA and the World Bank for all 195 nations and calculated the 50 countries with the largest trade deficit as measured by the sum of their global merchandise and service exports minus the sum of their global merchandise and service imports. The data are accurate as of 2017 and countries are ranked from the lowest to the highest trade deficit.

While China, Germany, and Japan currently have the largest trade surpluses, this does not present a complete picture since countries prioritize spending and selling differently. As of 2017, the U.S, China, Germany, the U.K., and France were the biggest importers while China, the U.S., Germany, Japan, and France were the biggest exporters.

Read on to learn which nation has a trade deficit larger than the next 37 nations combined.

You might also like: Ranking the biggest trade partners of the U.S.

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Pixabay

#50. Macedonia

- Trade deficit: $1.6 billion
- Exports: $6.2 billion
- Imports: $7.8 billion

Macedonia's major trade partners include Germany, Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, Belgium, and the U.K. The country counts its top imports as platinum, petroleum, and ceramics, while exports are highest for supported catalysts, filtering or purifying machinery, and ignition wiring sets.

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upyernoz // Flickr

#49. Tajikistan

- Trade deficit: $1.6 billion
- Exports: $1.1 billion
- Imports: $2.8 billion

The world's 148th largest export economy counts its major trade partners as Italy, the Netherlands, Russia, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, and Switzerland. The country's largest imports are alumina (for manufacturing aluminum), grain and flour, consumer and capital goods, and energy in the form of petroleum and petroleum products, electricity, and natural gas.

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Pixabay

#48. Ghana

- Trade deficit: $1.7 billion
- Exports: $20.4 billion
- Imports: $22.1 billion

Ghana is Africa's second-largest producer of gold, which is also the country's top export along with petroleum and cocoa beans. The country counts India, China, U.S., Switzerland, South Africa, and the U.K. as its main trade partners. Chief imports include cement clinkers, automobiles, and spelt (a grain that closely resembles wheat).

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Pixabay

#47. Georgia

- Trade deficit: $1.8 billion
- Exports: $7.6 billion
- Imports: $9.3 billion

Georgia's top trade partners are Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, China, and Armenia. The country relies on imports for its petroleum, as Georgia is without any of its own proved petroleum reserves or crude oil production. Georgia's other top imports are natural gas and copper ore, while its main exports are copper, ferro-silico manganese, and wine. The country stands as one of the world's oldest-known wine regions, with evidence of wine production there dating back to around 8,000 years ago.

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Alexander Raths // Shutterstock

#46. Mauritius

- Trade deficit: $1.8 billion
- Exports: $5.4 billion
- Imports: $7.2 billion

Mauritius, a member of the WTO seeking to create a globally competitive economy, boasts no trade barriers and low customs duties. The country's top exports are prepared or preserved tuna, cane or beet sugar, and men's or boy's shirts; while Mauritius' chief imports are petroleum, frozen fish, and medicaments of mixed or unmixed products. Its major trade partners are France, China, India, the United Kingdom, the United States, and South Africa.

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Pixabay

#45. Zimbabwe

- Trade deficit: $1.8 billion
- Exports: $4.7 billion
- Imports: $6.6 billion

Zimbabwe is Africa's largest tobacco grower, and the world's sixth-largest grower. The tobacco coming from this country (mainly Virginia flue-cured, burley, and oriental varieties) is celebrated for its flavor and was a staple crop for the former country of Rhodesia, which is geographically where Zimbabwe now sits. Zimbabwe's other top exports are gold and nickel ore; the country's biggest imports are petroleum, maize, and electricity. Major trade partners for Zimbabwe are South Africa, Mozambique, United Arab Emirates, Singapore, and China.

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Pixabay

#44. Kosovo

- Trade deficit: $1.9 billion
- Exports: $2.0 billion
- Imports: $3.8 billion

Considered a "transition economy," Kosovo's exports dropped in January 2019 in line with a drop in sales for crude materials, inedible, except fuelds and for manufactured goods. The country largely imports appliances and electric materials, prepared food, beverages and tobacco, mineral products, machinery, metals, and chemical products. 

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Neil Cummings // Flickr

#43. Nicaragua

- Trade deficit: $2 billion
- Exports: $5.7 billion
- Imports: $7.7 billion

Nicaragua's major trade partners include the U.S., Mexico, China, El Salvador, Honduras, and Costa Rica. The country's top exports are coffee, T-shirts, and ignition wiring sets. Imports include petroleum, medicaments of mixed or unmixed products, and crocheted or weft knit fabrics.

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Pixabay

#42. Albania

- Trade deficit: $2 billion
- Exports: $4.1 billion
- Imports: $6.1 billion

Albania's top exports include uppers, chromium, and men's and boys' trousers, while importing a large amount of its electricity, automobiles, and petroleum. Albania's major trade partners are Italy, Serbia, Spain, Turkey, Greece, Germany, however imports in the last year from Italy, Greece, and Turkey all dropped.

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tristan tan // Shutterstock

#41. Uganda

- Trade deficit: $2.1 billion
- Exports: $5.0 billion
- Imports: $7.1 billion

It's no wonder coffee is among Uganda's top three exports: Coffee production accounts for upwards of 30% of the country's annual foreign exchange earnings. Uganda's other two top exports are gold and petroleum, while the country is a large importer of petroleum, medicaments of mixed or unmixed products, and crude palm oil. Major trade partners for the landlocked country are Kenya, China, the United Arab Emirates, India, South Sudan, Congo, and Rwanda.

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demarcomedia // Shutterstock

#40. Moldova

- Trade deficit: $2.3 billion
- Exports: $3.1 billion
- Imports: $5.4 billion

Moldova's major trade partners are Romania, Russia, Italy, Ukraine, Germany, China, and the U.K. The former Soviet republic is one of Europe's poorest countries, with top exports being sunflower seeds, ignition wiring sets, and spelt. Moldova's biggest imports are petroleum, medicaments of mixed or unmixed lots, and electric conductors.

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PureRadiancePhoto // Shutterstock

#39. Dominican Republic

- Trade deficit: $2.3 billion
- Exports: $18.9 billion
- Imports: $21.2 billion

The Dominican Republic is home to the Pueblo Viejo mine, the largest in the Americas and second-largest on the planet. Gold is one of the Dominican Republic's top exports, along with appliances, medical instruments, and the country's world-renowned cigars. Major trade partners to the Dominican Republic are the U.S., Haiti, China, Mexico, Canada, India, and Brazil. The country's top imports include petroleum, automobiles, and medicaments of mixed or unmixed products.

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#38. Cambodia

- Trade deficit: $2.4 billion
- Exports: $15.8 billion
- Imports: $18.2 billion

Cambodia's top exports all come from the country's expansive-albeit-controversial garment industry: women's and girls' trousers, t-shirts, and men's and boys' trousers. Cambodia also imports materials for that industry, including crocheted or welt knit fabric, and knitted or crocheted fabrics over 30 cm. wide. Petroleum is another large import for Cambodia, which counts the U.S., China, U.K., Thailand, Germany, and Vietnam among its major trade partners.

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Pixabay

#37. Kyrgyz Republic

- Trade deficit: $2.5 billion
- Exports: $2.6 billion
- Imports: $5.1 billion

The Kyrgyz Republic conducts most of its trade with Switzerland, China, Kazakhstan, Russia, the U.K., and Turkey. Top exports here are gold, precious metal ores, and aircraft equipment, while the country regularly imports petroleum, footwear, and medicaments of mixed or unmixed products.

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Pixabay

#36. Bolivia

- Trade deficit: $2.5 billion
- Exports: $9.2 billion
- Imports: $11.7 billion

Bolivia, classified by the World Bank as a lower-middle income country, is a large exporter of natural gas, zinc, and gold—mining accounted for more than a quarter of all Bolivia's exports (or $1.9 billion) in 2016. The country's major trade partners are Brazil, China, Argentina, South Korea, the U.S., and Japan. Bolivia's top imports are petroleum, automobiles, steel ribbed bars and threaded rods (rebar).

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James St. John // Flickr

#35. Jamaica

- Trade deficit: $2.7 billion
- Exports: $4.8 billion
- Imports: $7.5 billion

Jamaica relies heavily on its petroleum imports and exports, as the country is still considered frontier territory for oil. The country grew rapidly economically in the '50s and '60s  due to its bauxite (the main ore of aluminum) industry. The country's main exports today remain Aluminum oxide, petroleum, aluminum ores, and biggest imports include petroleum, automobiles, medicaments of mixed or unmixed products. Jamaica's major trade partners are the U.S., Netherlands, Japan, Canada, China, and Iceland.

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Pixabay

#34. Mozambique

- Trade deficit: $2.8 billion
- Exports: $5.4 billion
- Imports: $8.2 billion

Mozambique's chief trade partners are India, South Africa, United Arab Emirates, China, Italy, and the Netherlands. The country remains among the world's poorest, in spite of efforts in 1987 by Mozambique's government to stabilize the economy with macroeconomic reforms. The country's top exports are coke and semi-coke, aluminum, and electricity; it's biggest imports are petroleum, aluminum, electricity, warships, and military ocean vessels.

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Randolph Black // Wikimedia Commons

#33. Bosnia and Herzegovina

- Trade deficit: $3 billion
- Exports: $7.3 billion
- Imports: $10.3 billion

Bosnia and Herzegovina's biggest trade partners are Germany, Croatia, Italy, Serbia, Slovenia, and China. As the country continues work to move past a war that ravaged the country's economy and culture more than 20 years ago,  a new stable of young politicians seeks to rebuild the struggling Bosnia and Herzegovina. Top exports are electricity, seat parts, and aluminum, while the country is a large importer of petroleum, automobile, bituminous coal.

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Kendra Helmer // Wikimedia Commons

#32. Haiti

- Trade deficit: $3.2 billion
- Exports: $1.5 billion
- Imports: $4.7 billion

Haiti counts on fuel imports for power. When Venezuela ceased delivery of cheap oil through the PetroCaribe energy-assistance program, Haiti had to purchase petroleum products for significantly more money from U.S. and Caribbean markets. The Haitian government can't pay but keeps control over those imports, which has led to significant energy shortages and blackouts for residents.

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Pixabay

#31. Honduras

- Trade deficit: $3.2 billion
- Exports: $7.5 billion
- Imports: $10.7 billion

Honduras' top exports are coffee, ignition wiring sets, and frozen shrimps; while its top imports are petroleum, medicaments of mixed or unmixed products, and transmission apparatuses. The country's major trade partners are the U.S., Germany, China, Belgium, Guatemala, the Netherlands, and Mexico.

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#30. Serbia

- Trade deficit: $3.4 billion
- Exports: $21.9 billion
- Imports: $25.3 billion

Serbia's service-based, upper-middle income economy operates on basic free-market principles with major trade partners in Italy, Germany, Bosnia and Herzegovina, China, Russia, and Montenegro. Top imports for the country are ignition wiring sets, diesel automobiles, and pneumatic tires. Serbia is a big importer of petroleum, motor vehicle parts, medicaments of mixed or unmixed products.

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Bahnfrend // Wikimedia Common

#29. Sudan

- Trade deficit: $4.1 billion
- Exports: $5.6 billion
- Imports: $9.7 billion

Sudan's economy boomed until late 2002, as oil prices soared and production was up. Today, petroleum is still a top export for the country along with gold and live sheep. Top imports for Sudan are petroleum, durum wheat, and cane or beet sugar. The country's major trade partners are the United Arab Emirates, China, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, India, Ethiopia, and Japan.

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Pixabay

#28. El Salvador

- Trade deficit: $4.1 billion
- Exports: $7.2 billion
- Imports: $11.4 billion

In a country where around a third of the population lives below the poverty line, El Salvador relies on exporting to its top trade partners—the U.S., Honduras, China, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Mexico, and Costa Rica—T-shirts, jerseys, and men's and boys' underwear. Top imports for El Salvador are petroleum, medicaments of mixed or unmixed products, and transmission apparatuses.

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Pixabay

#27. Romania

- Trade deficit: $4.6 billion
- Exports: $88 billion
- Imports: $92.6 billion

Romania boasts a skilled labor market and diverse economy, yet its imports are growing at a faster rate than the country's exports. Romania's biggest trade partners are Germany, Italy, France, Hungary, Poland, and the U.K. The country's top exports are ignition wiring sets, automobile transmissions, and petroleum; its top imports are petroleum, medicaments of mixed or unmixed products, and transmission apparatuses.

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Pixabay

#26. Myanmar

- Trade deficit: $4.7 billion
- Exports: $14 billion
- Imports: $18.7 billion

Myanmar suffered through a tremendous ballooning of its trade deficit between October 2018 and January 2019, even as trade authorities work to increase the country's exports—largely comprised of liquid natural gas, husked brown rice, and shelled dried beans—with major trade partners such as China, Thailand, Singapore, Japan, India, and Malaysia. Myanmar's top imports are petroleum, cane or beet sugar, and off-highway dump trucks.

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Creative Lab // Shutterstock

#25. Tunisia

- Trade deficit: $5 billion
- Exports: $17.6 billion
- Imports: $22.6 billion

Tunisia counts among its major trade partners France, Italy, Germany, China, Spain, and Turkey. The country has been in the throes of economic reform following multiple decades of heavy-handed state policies; today, Tunisia is enjoying slow, steady growth that began more than a decade ago; thanks in part to exports such as electric conductors, petroleum, men's or boy's trousers, and imports like petroleum, automobiles, and electrical switching appliances.

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optimarc // Shutterstock

#24. Sri Lanka

- Trade deficit: $6.3 billion
- Exports: $19.1 billion
- Imports: $25.4 billion

Sri Lanka has enjoyed economic growth over the last several years, thanks in part to strong trade partners such as India, China, the United Arab Emirates, Singapore, and Japan. Sri Lanka's main exports are solid tires, brassieres, and its world-renowned black tea. Major imports for the country include petroleum, gold, and transmission apparatuses.

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Pixabay

#23. Guatemala

- Trade deficit: $6.4 billion
- Exports: $14 billion
- Imports: $20.4 billion

One of the world’s great ecosystems, Guatemala has been inflicted by poverty and the drug trade. Major trade partners of the Central American nation include the U.S., El Salvador, Mexico, Honduras, China, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Top exports include bananas, raw cane sugar, and coffee. Top imports to Guatemala include petroleum, medicaments of mixed or unmixed products, and transmission apparatuses.

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Pixabay

#22. Afghanistan

- Trade deficit: $7 billion
- Exports: $1.2 billion
- Imports: $8.2 billion

Afghanistan has been racked first by the Soviet Union and then by continuing struggles with the United States. Major trade partners for the Middle Eastern state include Pakistan, Iran, India, China, Turkey, Kazakhstan, and Iraq. Afghanistan primarily exports vegetable saps and extracts, dried grapes, and fresh grapes. The country's biggest imports are wheat or meslin flour, peat, and braids.

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Pixabay

#21. Ukraine

- Trade deficit: $8.6 billion
- Exports: $53.9 billion
- Imports: $62.5 billion

Continuing strife with Russia over the Crimea and Eastern Ukraine taints former Soviet Union state Ukraine’s current trade situation. Major trade partners include Russia, Poland, China, Turkey, Germany, and Italy. Top exports include crude sunflower or safflower seed oil, maize, spelt, and common wheat. Top imports include petroleum, natural gas, and bituminous coal.

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Graham Racher // Wikimedia Commons

#20. Jordan

- Trade deficit: $8.6 billion
- Exports: $14.3 billion
- Imports: $22.9 billion

The large influx of refugees from ISIL and the Syrian War has taxed the Jordanian economy. Despite this, Jordan maintains an upper-middle income economy. Jordan sells to the U.S., China, the Free Zones, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and the United Arab Emirates. The country’s emerging knowledge economy sells cotton garments, mineral or chemical fertilizers, and knitted or crocheted garments. Its largest imports are liquid natural gas, petroleum, and snowmobiles. Jordan’s economy continues to struggle with political unrest, low access to water and purification supplies, and the country's total reliance on other countries for energy from oil.

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Pixabay

#19. Kenya

- Trade deficit: $8.6 billion
- Exports: $10.4 billion
- Imports: $19.1 billion

The major African nation Kenya has a market-based economy and trades mainly with Pakistan, China, Uganda, India, the U.S., the United Arab Emirates, and the Netherlands. Top exports include black tea, fresh-cut flowers, and petroleum. Top imports include petroleum, crude palm oil, and spelt and common wheat.

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Artens // Shutterstock

#18. Colombia

- Trade deficit: $8.8 billion
- Exports: $48 billion
- Imports: $56.8 billion

Colombia has had to deal with a crippling drug war and international sanctions. Despite this, the country offers more than $100 billion in international commerce. Major trade partners include the U.S., Panama, China, Mexico, Netherlands, Brazil, and Germany. Top exports include petroleum products, bituminous coal, and coffee. Top imports include raw petroleum, transmission apparatuses, and automobiles.

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#17. Nepal

- Trade deficit: $9.2 billion
- Exports: $2.4 billion
- Imports: $11.6 billion

This China-bordering nation trades mostly with India, the U.S., China, Turkey, Germany, and the United Arab Emirates. Nepal's economic development is tied to frequent political fluctuations, however standard exports are solidly in the carpet trade, cardamoms, and polyester-blend yarns. The country is a large importer of petroleum, semi-finished iron or non-alloy steel, and gold.

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#16. Morocco

- Trade deficit: $10.8 billion
- Exports: $38.9 billion
- Imports: $49.7 billion

A Strait of Gibraltar nation, Morocco has been essential for world trade for millennia. It trades chiefly with Spain, France, Italy, China, the U.S., India, and Germany. The country's largest exports are automobiles, ignition wiring sets, and phosphoric acid. It buys petroleum, diesel automobiles, and passenger-carrying vehicle bodies.

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Pixabay

#15. Ethiopia

- Trade deficit: $12.5 billion
- Exports: $6.6 billion
- Imports: $19.1 billion

Ethiopia is one of the poorest nations in Africa. Despite this, the nation has a strong agricultural and mining base. Major trade partners include the U.S., China, Saudi Arabia, Germany, India, Switzerland, and Kuwait. The country has a mixed and transition economy with top exports that include coffee, gold, and dried kidney beans. Top imports include petroleum, palm oil and prepared unrecorded media for sound recording.

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Pixabay

#14. Lebanon

- Trade deficit: $13.1 billion
- Exports: $19 billion
- Imports: $32.1 billion

A minor Middle Eastern nation, Lebanon has taken on the moniker “Switzerland of the East” due to its banking prowess. This, however, does not translate to trade. Lebanon's biggest trade partnerships are with South Africa, China, Saudi Arabia, Italy, the United Arab Emirates, and the U.S. Top exports include gold, copper waste and scrap, and printed books and brochures. Top imports include petroleum, gold, and medicaments of mixed or unmixed products.

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United Soybean Board // Wikimedia Commons

#13. Argentina

- Trade deficit: $15.4 billion
- Exports: $72.6 billion
- Imports: $88.1 billion

The eighth-largest nation in the world, Argentina is rich in natural resources due to a diverse terrain that includes grassland, mountains, and glacial lakes. Major trade partners include Brazil, the U.S., China, Vietnam, Germany, and Chile. Top exports are soybean oil-cake or solid residue, maize, and crude soybean oil. Top imports for Argentina are automobiles, petroleum and telephone electrical apparatuses.

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sculpies // Shutterstock

#12. Bangladesh

- Trade deficit: $17.7 billion
- Exports: $39.2 billion
- Imports: $56.8 billion

The India-neighboring country of Bangladesh is the eighth-most populous nation. Bangladesh trades with the U.S., China, Germany, India, the U.K., Singapore, and Hong Kong. The country's biggest exports are T-shirts, men’s or boy’s trousers, and women’s or girl’s trousers. Bangladesh regularly buys petroleum, cotton, and palm oil.

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T137 // Wikimedia Commons

#11. Mexico

- Trade deficit: $20.8 billion
- Exports: $437.4 billion
- Imports: $458.2 billion

With one of the best trading postures of any North American nation, Mexico benefits from NAFTA and its proximity to Central America. Mexico's biggest trade partners are the U.S., Canada, Germany, China, Japan, and Spain. Its top exports include automobiles, petroleum products, and digital process units. Mexico's biggest imports are raw petroleum, monolithic integrated circuits, and automobiles.

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#10. Algeria

- Trade deficit: $22.6 billion
- Exports: $37.6 billion
- Imports: $60.1 billion

Sitting near the western border of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, Algeria has been a key stop on trade routes for centuries. Algeria’s major trade partners include Italy, China, France, Spain, the U.S., Germany, and Brazil. Top exports include petroleum products, natural gas and liquid natural gas, while the country's biggest imports are raw petroleum, spelt or common wheat, and raw cane sugar.

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#9. France

- Trade deficit: $23.9 billion
- Exports: $830.4 billion
- Imports: $854.2 billion

One of the nations most likely to undergo significant changes to its international trade is France, one of Europe’s largest economies. France trades primarily with Germany, Spain, China, Italy, the U.S, and Belgium. Its top exports are aircrafts, medicaments of mixed or unmixed products and petroleum products. Its top imports are petroleum, aircraft parts and diesel automobiles.

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#8. Egypt

- Trade deficit: $27.3 billion
- Exports: $42.8 billion
- Imports: $70.1 billion

Historical trading power Egypt has suffered from political instability and low petroleum prices in recent years. The nation’s major trade partners include neighbor United Arab Emirates, China, Italy, Germany, Turkey, and Saudi Arabia. The nation primarily exports petroleum products, gold, and urea, which is used in fertilizers and other chemical products. The nation’s imports include raw petroleum, durum wheat, and liquid natural gas.

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#7. United Kingdom

- Trade deficit: $29.0 billion
- Exports: $796.4 billion
- Imports: $825.4 billion

With Brexit less than a month away, the United Kingdom’s trading position may grow significantly more complicated. The U.K.’s current major trading partners include the U.S., Germany, China, France, the Netherlands, and Ireland. The U.K. primarily exports petroleum products, finished gold, and medicaments of mixed or unmixed products. The nation imports gold, petroleum, and transmission apparatuses.

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zaphad1 // Flickr

#6. Philippines

- Trade deficit: $31.3 billion
- Exports: $87.7 billion
- Imports: $119 billion

This former American colony is a major trading power in the Pacific. Major trading partners to the Philippines include Japan, China, the U.S., Hong Kong, South Korea, and Thailand. The nation exports primarily monolithic integrated circuits, electric machines parts and storage units.

Its top imports are electronic integrated circuits parts, monolithic integrated circuits and petroleum.

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#5. Pakistan

- Trade deficit: $34.7 billion
- Exports: $28.9 billion
- Imports: $63.6 billion

India’s northwestern neighbor Pakistan oddly does not trade with India. This may be due to the years of contentious relations between the two nations. It does trade with the U.S., China, the U.K., the United Arab Emirates, and Afghanistan. Pakistan exports primarily semi-milled or wholly milled rice, men’s or boy’s ensembles, and uncombed, single-cotton yarn. The country's top imports are petroleum, palm oil, and liquid natural gas.

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Laitr Keiows // Wikimedia Commons

#4. Canada

- Trade deficit: $37.7 billion
- Exports: $510.8 billion
- Imports: $548.5 billion

The highly affluent Canada suffers from infrastructure problems due to the extreme climate of most of its landmass. Due to this, the nation relies heavily on imports. Canada regularly trades from the United States, China, U.K., Mexico, Japan, and Germany. Its top exports are bitumen and non-bituminous raw petroleum, automobiles, and gold. Its top exports are automobiles, petroleum and gas-powered trucks.

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Pixabay

#3. Turkey

- Trade deficit: $39 billion
- Exports: $210.2 billion
- Imports: $249.2 billion

The traditional gateway to Asia, Turkey is largely seen as the bridge into the Middle East and has traditionally been a major trading route. Turkey trades with Germany, China, U.K., United Arab Emirates, Russia, and the U.S. The nation’s top exports are finished gold, diesel-powered trucks, and jewelry. The top imports are raw gold, petroleum, ferrous waste, and scrap.

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Alon Ben Joseph // Flickr

#2. India

- Trade deficit: $72.2 billion
- Exports: $489.4 billion
- Imports: $561.6 billion

The second-most populous nation in the world and the most populous English-speaking nation, India is an essential part of the world’s economy. The nation’s top trading partners are the U.S., China, United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, and Saudi Arabia. The nation chiefly exports raw petroleum, non-industrial diamonds, and medicaments of mixed or unmixed products. The nation exports petroleum, gold and finished non-industrial diamonds.

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Mavrick // Shutterstock

#1. United States

- Trade deficit: $552.3 billion
- Exports: $2,351.1 billion
- Imports: $2,903.3 billion

While the United States leads the world in trade deficits, it is because trade was a way for the nation to engage in foreign aid. This allowed the United States to offer assistance without having to formally declare a potentially contentious foreign aid package. However, this policy has led to recent conversations about its continued use and the implications of abandoning it. Top trade partners for United States are Canada, Mexico, China, Japan, and the U.K. The United States primarily imports raw petroleum, transmission apparatuses, and automobiles. The nation exports refined petroleum products, monolithic integrated circuits, and transmission apparatuses.

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