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Jobs with the highest gender pay gaps

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StunningArt // Shutterstock

Jobs with the highest gender pay gaps

As of 2018, women comprise almost half of the workforce and hold more college degrees than men, but still make considerably less. On average, a woman earns 80.5 cents for every dollar a man earns, even when their education, experience, and qualifications are equal. The gender wage gap has become a hot-button issue over the last few years, with women are becoming more vocal about equal pay, and more companies and politicians proposing plans to close the gap once and for all.

Stacker set out to identify the jobs with the highest gender pay gaps. For this list, a total of 113 occupations were analyzed (excluding occupations with the term “all other”), and the top 50 with the highest gender pay gaps were chosen. Using data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (which was updated Jan. 18, 2019), Stacker ranked the jobs by women’s earnings as a percentage of men’s, with all ties being broken by the difference in weekly earnings between men and women. Stacker excluded any occupations BLS listed that were broad or included the term “all other,” as these kinds of listings combine several small occupations together and do not offer clear data about one specific job.

Read on to find out which industries are major offenders—insurance and finance hit women particularly hard—and in which six jobs women earn even less than 70% of what their male counterparts make.

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US Navy Photo // Wikimedia Commons

#50. Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 81.16%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $807
- Women's median weekly earnings: $655
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $152
- Total male workers: 112,000
- Total female workers: 431,000

Many visits to a doctor's office include contact with a health practitioner support technologist or technician. These professionals operate technical equipment (like an x-ray machine or an ultrasound), run diagnostic tests, assist in patient care, and maintain patient records. As of 2013, there were 2.8 million of these professionals in the industry, and while they're overwhelmingly female, men make significantly more. This may be partially due to the fact that men fill more specialized roles that require more specialized training and education than women, therefore demanding top dollar for their jobs.

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Chris Wagner // Wikimedia Commons

#49. Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 81.02%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $943
- Women's median weekly earnings: $764
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $179
- Total male workers: 122,000
- Total female workers: 59,000

Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and paramedics are both considered first-responders, but with different skill sets. EMTs are generally entry-level, while paramedics have more specialized training and education. There are nearly twice as many men as women in the field, which may be the primary reason for the pay gap—with more men in the field, demanding more money, the baseline salary for male EMTs and paramedics has been established as significantly higher than the baseline salary for women.

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Greg Vojtko // Wikimedia Commons

#48. Engineering technicians, except drafters

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 80.94%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,154
- Women's median weekly earnings: $934
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $220
- Total male workers: 332,000
- Total female workers: 66,000

Engineering technicians assist engineers and scientists in solving technical problems in research, development, and application. An engineering technician job is more application-oriented than a mechanical or other type of engineer. The pay gap could be attributed to the fact that men tend to be in more technical specialties like aerospace or electrical, while women are more likely to work in environmental and civil fields.

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Michael Saechang // Flickr

#47. Janitors and building cleaners

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 80.89%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $607
- Women's median weekly earnings: $491
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $116
- Total male workers: 1,193,000
- Total female workers: 480,000

While being a janitor hardly seems like a glamorous job, it's one in high demand—10% growth is projected through 2026. It also requires little to no formal education and has flexible working hours. The job can be quite physical, which explains why positions have historically been filled by men who often have had an easier time fulfilling the duties.

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Alexandra Lehmann // Flickr

#46. Property, real estate, and community association managers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 80.75%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,148
- Women's median weekly earnings: $927
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $221
- Total male workers: 181,000
- Total female workers: 208,000

Property, real estate, and community association managers oversee all the day-to-day administrative tasks of a residential or industrial building or complex, such as maintenance, operations, rent, and leasing for these buildings. There are substantially more women than men in this field, but most men make more. It turns out that this is largely because men who work property management aren't starting at entry level like women. Instead, they're transferring over from other industries at the midpoint of their careers, with the experience to demand more money from the start.

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volchonok19955 // Pixabay

#45. First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 80.69%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $668
- Women's median weekly earnings: $539
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $129
- Total male workers: 166,000
- Total female workers: 231,000

A more succinct title for first-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers would be kitchen managers or cafeteria managers. These people oversee all of the food preparation in a cooking facility, as well as its team of workers. The gender disparity extends past pay—issues such as cultures of sexism and lack of women chefs and owners have been brought to light in recent years.

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General Motors // Wikimedia Commons

#44. Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 80.64%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $723
- Women's median weekly earnings: $583
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $140
- Total male workers: 641,000
- Total female workers: 348,000

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators are most often employed by the motor vehicles industry (think the people who put the parts of your car together, and then turn those parts into a whole). The motor vehicle industry has been a boys' club since its conception—to date, there are still 300,000 more men in the field than women. This is often cited as the sole reason for the substantial pay gap between men's and women's salaries in the industry.

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ernestoeslava // Pixabay

#43. Compliance officers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 80.34%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,450
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,165
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $285
- Total male workers: 129,000
- Total female workers: 149,000

Compliance officers are desperately sought after and hard to find in today's job market. They're highly trained to ensure that a company or institution is complying with all the national and international laws that surround its industry—from anti-money laundering to sexual harassment policies. The demand for their services makes this one of the higher-paying careers on this list, but still one where women earn far less than their male counterparts.

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Jane Kim // Wikimedia Commons

#42. Lawyers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 80.02%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $2,202
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,762
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $440
- Total male workers: 509,000
- Total female workers: 344,000

It's ironic that lawyers, who fight for gender pay equality in so many of these other industries, also have a glaring pay gap in their own industry. The first women to graduate from law school and pass the bar in America both did so in 1869. Seeing as they were centuries late to the game, it's no surprise that women's salaries have been playing catch-up for the last 150 years or so.

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Airman 1st Class Ashley Perdue // U.S. Air Force

#41. General and operations managers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 79.82%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,427
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,139
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $288
- Total male workers: 656,000
- Total female workers: 283,000

Operations managers' duties are almost as vague and general as you'd expect—essentially they plan, direct, and coordinate the operations of public and private sector organizations. They often have several department managers working under them, most of whom are also male. While it may seem hard to believe, women are rare in this role; many organizations, such as NASA, still have never had a female general or operations manager.

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Duncan Hull // Flickr

#40. Designers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 79.73%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,169
- Women's median weekly earnings: $932
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $237
- Total male workers: 357,000
- Total female workers: 327,000

The gender divide for designers is split nearly down the middle, with only approximately 30,000 more men working in the field than women. However, women only make 79.73% of what men make. When you look at the designers who helm most of the major fashion houses, like Gucci and Yves Saint Laurent, they're overwhelmingly male, which could be a major contributing factor to the pay gap.

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Helpling Communication // Flickr

#39. First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 79.66%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $772
- Women's median weekly earnings: $615
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $157
- Total male workers: 116,000
- Total female workers: 77,000

Just like first-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers, first-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers are essentially managers who supervise the work of cleaning personnel in hotels, hospitals, offices, and other establishments. As with other managerial positions, men are more likely to get these jobs (116,000 men versus 77,000 women in the field). When women are placed in these roles it's often after they've worked up from the bottom, meaning that their starting managerial salary is likely lower than their male counterparts simply because their entry-level salary was lower.

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CoreCivic // Flickr

#38. Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 79.65%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $811
- Women's median weekly earnings: $646
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $165
- Total male workers: 289,000
- Total female workers: 105,000

Both bailiffs and correctional officers are technically law enforcement officers, just in different realms. Bailiffs keep order in a courtroom while correctional officers work in a jail or prison. Traditionally, women have faced a lot of resentment and hostility in the industry, and have faced an uphill battle convincing male supervisors they are capable of doing the job well. This is reflected both in the low numbers of women who are correctional officers and bailiffs and in the gender pay gap.

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US Dept of Agriculture // Flickr

#37. Education administrators

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 79.65%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,563
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,245
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $318
- Total male workers: 294,000
- Total female workers: 563,000

Education administrator is a general term that encompasses a multitude of positions, from principals to vice principals to school district administrators to college university deans. Regardless of the formal title, education administrators are responsible for leading an entire community of learners. Historically, women have had to fight for their education—it wasn't until 1972 with the passing of Title IX of the Education Amendments Act that women were protected from discrimination in educational programs—so it's no surprise that they're having to fight for equal pay in education today.

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Johnwalton // Wikimedia Commons

#36. Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 79.56%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $636
- Women's median weekly earnings: $506
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $130
- Total male workers: 594,000
- Total female workers: 187,000

As of 2018, only 23% of the people working in the security guard sector were women. While the job offers many advantages for women—quicker promotion rates, opportunities for female mentorship and networking, and a better than average work-life balance—one major thing that's not in their favor is the pay. 

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jsoto // Pixabay

#35. First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 79.52%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,050
- Women's median weekly earnings: $835
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $215
- Total male workers: 386,000
- Total female workers: 892,000

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers spend a lot of time in a customer support role addressing and resolving customer complaints and answering customer questions, while also overseeing the work of other office and administrative staff. While the number of women in this role is more than double that of men, they make considerably less. One possible explanation for the discrepancy is that women's mistakes in the workplace are often viewed as more significant and punished more excessively, and sometimes that punishment can look like getting passed over for a raise.

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agilemktg1 // Flickr

#34. Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 79.38%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $936
- Women's median weekly earnings: $743
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $193
- Total male workers: 56,000
- Total female workers: 434,000

Looking at the numbers of licensed practical and vocational numbers is truly shocking: only 56,000 men fill either of these roles vs. 434,000 women. Still, on average women make $193 less each week. Even more shocking, women essentially began the nursing profession. So why are they still getting paid less than men? One viable answer is that men do more physical work, like lifting patients and changing bed sheets, and are in more specialized fields like acute care or emergency medicine.

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rawpixel // Pixabay

#33. Social and community service managers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 79.12%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,336
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,057
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $279
- Total male workers: 112,000
- Total female workers: 251,000

Social and community services, like food stamps, affordable housing, and job placement programs, owe all of their success to social and community service managers. These individuals shape and grow these programs while managing the workers who actually provide the services. There seems to be no logical reason women earn less in this position, except that they are perhaps less self-promoting than men and aren't campaigning as avidly for higher salaries.

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Mweufika // Wikimedia Commons

#32. Accountants and auditors

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 78.92%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,404
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,108
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $296
- Total male workers: 646,000
- Total female workers: 969,000

Accountants and auditors are both responsible for ensuring that financial records are accurate and that taxes are paid properly. While, again, there are more women in the field than men, men still make more money. One factor that may come into play is that male accountants and auditors are 5% more likely to hold an advanced degree, 9% more likely to hold a higher certification, and hold significantly more senior- and top-level positions.

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Claudio_Scott // Pixabay

#31. Production, planning, and expediting clerks

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 78.69%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,004
- Women's median weekly earnings: $790
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $214
- Total male workers: 119,000
- Total female workers: 134,000

Production, planning and expediting clerks coordinate the flow of work and materials within or between departments of a company. Among other things, they ensure shipments are going out on time, production schedules are being adhered to, and work is flowing as smoothly as possible. Forbes found that men with the same qualifications and degrees as their female counterparts earn more than women performing the same jobs, which seems to be the case in this industry.

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Public Domain // Wikimedia Commons

#30. Dispatchers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 78.29%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $926
- Women's median weekly earnings: $725
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $201
- Total male workers: 108,000
- Total female workers: 162,000

If you've ever had to place a call to 911 or a non-emergency number, then you've dealt with a dispatcher. Working in dispatch is a 24/7 job, with plenty of employees working night, weekend, and holiday shifts translating panicked calls into actionable instructions for first responders. As with many others, there seems to be no clear or arguable reason for why men are earning more than women in this field.

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Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement // Flickr

#29. Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 78.23%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $868
- Women's median weekly earnings: $679
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $189
- Total male workers: 490,000
- Total female workers: 267,000

Assembling cars as quickly and easily as it's done today is only possible because all of the individual parts are completely uniform, which is thanks to the labor of inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers. Statistically, in working-class families, more women get two-year and four-year college degrees than men; in turn, jobs such as these, which require no college education, are mostly filled by men.

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Andrea Booher // Wikimedia Commons

#28. Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 78.23%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,167
- Women's median weekly earnings: $913
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $254
- Total male workers: 145,000
- Total female workers: 189,000

Filing an insurance claim is not an easy process, and it's one that usually involves multiple people—like claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators. Women in this industry make $254 less than their male counterparts each week, which can add up to a whopping $13,208 less each year. One significant reason for the pay gap is that women hold very few of the leadership positions in the insurance industry and haven't yet been able to break through the glass ceiling.

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Karen Thibaut // Wikimedia Commons

#27. Postsecondary teachers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 78.17%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,603
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,253
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $350
- Total male workers: 534,000
- Total female workers: 460,000

Postsecondary teachers are also known as college or university professors. A recent report found that women don't hold as many assistant professor or full professor positions as men, they aren't granted tenure as often as their male peers, and they are less likely to ever be made a department head; in secondary education, higher pay is usually attached to these three factors.

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franchise opportunities // Flickr

#26. Insurance sales agents

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 77.19%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,048
- Women's median weekly earnings: $809
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $239
- Total male workers: 205,000
- Total female workers: 261,000

Insurance sales agents help navigate various insurance policies in order to help clients choose the best one for their needs and circumstances. A major piece of an insurance agent's salary is the commissions they make on sales—and while women are 11% more likely to close a deal than men, their lower base salaries (salary before commission) means that they earn less on average.

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Germanna CC // Flickr

#25. Medical and health services managers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 76.98%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,729
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,331
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $398
- Total male workers: 149,000
- Total female workers: 418,000

Women dominate the medical and health services field: There are 250,000 more women in the ranks than men, but they bring close to an average of $20,000 less each year. Like many other professions, it often comes down to hard-to-measure gender discrimination; American Association of University Women CEO Kim Churches encourages women to negotiate their pay to avoid being held back. 

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US Dept of Agriculture

#24. Food service managers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 76.79%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $922
- Women's median weekly earnings: $708
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $214
- Total male workers: 420,000
- Total female workers: 407,000

Food service managers are responsible for the daily operations of restaurants and cafes. The field is split fairly evenly between men and women, but the pay is not. The gender pay gap is consistent across the majority of positions within the hospitality industry, according to Gecko Hospitality's 2017 Restaurant Management Salary Survey Report.

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Tulane Public Relations // Wikimedia Commons

#23. Other teachers and instructors

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 76.71%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,095
- Women's median weekly earnings: $840
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $255
- Total male workers: 172,000
- Total female workers: 215,000

“Other” teachers and instructors refer to those who work in a variety of unique fields like music, sports, and art. A study done by the National Center for Education Statistics suggests that men make more because of simple supply and demand—more women are teachers in these fields, which are also fraught with high competition. Women may be more likely to agree to a lower salary in order to snag the job.

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Raiffeisenverband Salzburg // Wikimedia Commons

#22. Market research analysts and marketing specialists

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 76.38%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,503
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,148
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $355
- Total male workers: 125,000
- Total female workers: 174,000

Market research analysts and marketing specialists look at local, regional, and national markets in order to gather information to determine potential sales of a product or service. They then use that information to create a marketing campaign that will sell the product or service. Research done by Axonn Media shows that women are slightly more likely to enter the marketing field as a career, but men are more likely to stick it out past a decade and occupy more senior positions. This may account for the nearly $18,500 yearly salary difference for men and women.

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NAVFAC // Flickr

#21. Computer systems analysts

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 75.65%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,647
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,246
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $401
- Total male workers: 358,000
- Total female workers: 222,000

Computer systems analysts are relatively new to the working world. The job entails studying an organization's current computer systems and procedures, and designing information systems solutions to help the organization operate more efficiently and effectively—something that simply wasn't necessary 50 years ago. According to Fast Company, women hold less than one-fifth of tech jobs and leave at a 45% higher rate than men. One major reason they cite for leaving is a lack of advancement opportunities—women are unlikely to be hired into management positions and even more unlikely to be promoted into them, stunting the amount of money they are able to demand.

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Martha Smith // Wikimedia Commons

#20. Human resources managers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 75.53%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,761
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,330
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $431
- Total male workers: 73,000
- Total female workers: 221,000

Human resources managers serve as a link between a company and its employees, working with them for the duration of their time at the job, from the hiring and recruiting process to their exit interviews and retirement payouts. Interestingly enough, Viser points out that the exact day-to-day role of an HR manager is very dependent on their gender. Men spend more time acting as strategic advisors or coaches (high-profile roles) while female HR managers act more as talent managers (a behind-the-scenes role). This could account for how much each gets paid.

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Landys Chemist // Pixabay

#19. Recreation and fitness workers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 75%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $724
- Women's median weekly earnings: $543
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $181
- Total male workers: 100,000
- Total female workers: 109,000

Recreation and fitness workers is an umbrella term encompassing all of those who work so that others can play. Think aerobics instructors, yoga teachers, and horseback riding coaches. The field is split fairly equally between men and women, so a potential explanation for why men earn nearly $10,000 a year more could be that they hold more physical education degrees and related certificates than women do.

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aholyman // Pixabay

#18. Financial analysts

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 74.86%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,599
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,197
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $402
- Total male workers: 138,000
- Total female workers: 122,000

Financial analysts provide guidance to business and individuals attempting to make investment decisions. By assessing the performances of stocks, bonds, and other products, they're able to recommend the best, or most secure, investment options. There are only around 15,000 more men in the industry than women, but women make less than 75% of their male counterparts—a significant loss of about $20,900 a year.

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vicwag // Wikimedia Commons

#17. Industrial engineers, including health and safety

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 74.03%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,571
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,163
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $408
- Total male workers: 191,000
- Total female workers: 54,000

Working to make businesses and processes more efficient and less wasteful, industrial engineers strive to streamline production services in order to save time, money and resources. Engineering has traditionally been a male-dominated field, but a new focus on STEM in American public schools is seeking to change that—perhaps this will be one pay gap to close in the years to come.

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Senior Airman Robert L. McIlrath // U.S. Air Force

#16. First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 73.77%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $911
- Women's median weekly earnings: $672
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $239
- Total male workers: 1,359,000
- Total female workers: 1,062,000

While there are more women in management positions today than ever before, they tend to be concentrated in certain industries. The Harvard Business Review found that the industries with the highest concentrations of female managers, like retail sales, also have the highest gender wage gaps. Women earn a little more than 70% of what their male counterparts earn, a net loss of $12,500 each year.

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Zeyus Media // Flickr

#15. Marketing and sales managers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 73.54%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,852
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,362
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $490
- Total male workers: 517,000
- Total female workers: 447,000

The Harvard Business Review also found that the industries with the highest concentration of female managers often emphasize people-centered skills, as opposed to industries with a higher concentration of male managers that emphasize production-centered skills. This also has a major effect on salaries: On the whole, production-centered jobs pay much more than people-centered jobs.

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Bill Abbot // Flickr

#14. Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 73.37%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $706
- Women's median weekly earnings: $518
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $188
- Total male workers: 57,000
- Total female workers: 53,000

There is an overall shortage of skilled workers, which is driving up wages and increasing women's involvement in fields that have typically been dominated by men. Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers put together everything from computers to batteries to car parts and have traditionally been men. The number of women in these jobs is definitely increasing—there are nearly as many women as men now—but women are still struggling to break through that glass ceiling which accounts for the $188 less they make per week.

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Steve wilson // Flickr

#13. Personal financial advisors

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 73.28%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,647
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,207
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $440
- Total male workers: 268,000
- Total female workers: 146,000

While you may assume as much, personal financial advisors aren't just for the mega-rich: They provide advice about investments, retirement, mortgages, and estate planning for people of all income levels. Men make significantly more than women in this job, an average of $23,000 a year, but it may be because they're more likely to pursue a master's degree in finance than women. Holding a master's degree allows for more advancement opportunities, most of which come with a major pay increase.

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stevepb // Pixabay

#12. Insurance underwriters

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 73.04%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,413
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,032
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $381
- Total male workers: 51,000
- Total female workers: 71,000

Insurance underwriters have a behind-the-scenes job. They spend their days doing risk assessment—determining which instances would be profitable for a company to provide insurance, and then calculating the premium that would be charged for taking on the risk. The 71,000 women in the job earn an average of $20,000 less than the 51,000 men in the field each year, for no apparent reason.

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Chris Yarzab // Wikimedia Commons

#11. Police and sheriff's patrol officers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 72.15%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,131
- Women's median weekly earnings: $816
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $315
- Total male workers: 622,000
- Total female workers: 106,000

It wasn't until 1972 when an amendment to the Civil Rights Act was passed prohibiting state and local agencies from job discrimination based on gender that women really found a foothold in law enforcement. Even after police departments were required to hire women for jobs on an equal basis as men, women still had to battle to be taken seriously. This is evident by the fact that women make $16,000 a year less than men, and still make up only one-seventh of the overall police force.

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Jim.henderson // Wikimedia Commons

#10. Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 71.66%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $628
- Women's median weekly earnings: $450
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $178
- Total male workers: 341,000
- Total female workers: 58,000

New York City is likely the taxi capital of the United States, and while thousands of green and yellow cabs roll through the city streets each day, it wasn't until the 1940s that the city saw their first female cab driver. While the number of female taxi drivers in the country has risen to 58,000, the ratio still remains low—as do the earnings. Women make $178 less each week, which translates to nearly $10,000 less than men each year.

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Free-Photos // Pixabay

#9. Retail salespersons

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 71.07%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $764
- Women's median weekly earnings: $543
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $221
- Total male workers: 1,144,000
- Total female workers: 716,000

Next time you head out for a day of shopping, take note of the gender disparity among the retail salespeople who serve you. The reality is the number of men is almost double the number of women. Female retail sales workers make less than men, partially because more women are placed into part-time positions than men, but often due to flat-out discrimination.

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US Dept of Agriculture

#8. First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 70.95%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,050
- Women's median weekly earnings: $745
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $305
- Total male workers: 642,000
- Total female workers: 150,000

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers oversee inspectors, machine operators, assemblers, fabricators, and system operators—essentially anyone who's involved in making mass-produced items. As mentioned earlier, working class jobs like this one tend to be held by more men than women, and these men stick around longer than women, allowing their yearly salaries to grow beyond their female counterparts.

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rawpixel // Pixabay

#7. Financial managers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 70.74%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,784
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,262
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $522
- Total male workers: 495,000
- Total female workers: 663,000

One of the few financial positions held by more women than men, financial managers are responsible for the financial health of an organization. These individuals produce financial reports, direct investment activities, and develop strategies and plans for the long-term financial goals of their organization. Regardless of it being such a high-stakes role, female financial managers only make 70.74% of what male financial managers make—a net loss of $27,000 each year.

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Nerissa de la Cruz // Flickr

#6. Real estate brokers and sales agents

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 69.86%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,264
- Women's median weekly earnings: $883
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $381
- Total male workers: 236,000
- Total female workers: 291,000

This category is slightly deceiving, as real estate brokers and real estate sales agents can actually be two separate jobs. Brokers are licensed to manage their own real estate businesses, and are mostly men, while sales agents can only work for another real estate broker, and are mostly women.

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DT // Pixabay

#5. Chief executives

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 69.77%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $2,488
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,736
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $752
- Total male workers: 790,000
- Total female workers: 307,000

Out of the Fortune 500 today, women chief executives number just 24. There has been a gradual increase of female CEOs over the past few years, but until the overall talent pipeline gets fixed—at these same companies, women make only make up 44% of employees, 37% of first-level and middle-level officials, and 27% of executive and senior-level managers—the playing field will not be even.

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fkevin // Pixabay

#4. Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 67.43%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $829
- Women's median weekly earnings: $559
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $270
- Total male workers: 2,636,000
- Total female workers: 155,000

Truck driving is almost always seen as a “man's job” and for good reason: Factors such as risk of assault, unaccommodating rest stations, and the design of truck cabins have kept the number of women in the industry low. Although the numbers have somewhat increased over the decades, men continue to make more money.

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sasint // Pixabay

#3. Physicians and surgeons

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 66.73%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $2,513
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,677
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $836
- Total male workers: 475,000
- Total female workers: 352,000

Currently, there are more men working as physicians and surgeons than women, but that could all be shifting soon. In 2017 more women were enrolled in medical school than men for the first time in history. As these women graduate, strengthen their specialties, and push for change, it's likely that the country could see the pay gap close.

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Republica // Pixabay

#2. Credit counselors and loan officers

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 65.7%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,443
- Women's median weekly earnings: $948
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $495
- Total male workers: 155,000
- Total female workers: 177,000

Loan officers assist prospective clients in applying for and securing loans, while credit counselors do the same for those looking to open a new line of credit. Women in this job make only 65.7% of a man's salary, for a net loss of nearly $26,000 a year. One possible explanation for this is that men may be seeking out more special certifications, like those required for mortgage lending, than women.

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Andyhill8 // Wikimedia Commons

#1. Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

- Women's earnings as a percentage of men's: 63.88%
- Men's median weekly earnings: $1,639
- Women's median weekly earnings: $1,047
- Difference in weekly earnings between men and women: $592
- Total male workers: 131,000
- Total female workers: 66,000

The financial industry is dominated by men, and has long had a reputation as being an “old boys' club,” where many men land their first job thanks to a father, a college alumni connection, or a golf buddy. This has made it an incredibly difficult field for women to break into, something that's extremely evident when you look at the number of women in securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents against the number of men. There are nearly twice as many male stock traders as female stock traders, and they earn a cool $30,000 a year more—highlighting a huge need for more women in the field and a tougher look at pay equality.

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