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Countries most dependent on oil

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Deensel // Flickr

Countries most dependent on oil

Oil fuels vehicles, heats homes, and surfaces highways in the form of asphalt. Although it offers conveniences, crude oil is starting to lose favor in the eyes of environmentalists. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the oil industry is the largest industrial source of the emissions that cause smog, which has been linked torespiratory system irritation, aggravated asthma symptoms, and lung damage. When oil spills happen, the damage they cause can last for years. Finally, carbon monoxide crude oil releases is seen as one of the major causes of climate change.

Despite the data showing the detrimental effects of fossil fuels, most countries still rely on this energy source. This means that oil is hugely lucrative for those who have it as a natural resource, often becoming a mainstay of their economy. We’ve put together a list of the 25 countries which are most dependent on oil. Stacker created the list using information compiled by the World Bank: oil rents as a percentage of a country’s gross domestic product and fuel exports as a percentage of a country’s merchandise exports.

Check out the slideshow to learn which countries are furthest from going green.

ALSO: Countries contributing the highest carbon emissions

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abdallahh // Flickr

#50. Cote d'Ivoire

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 0.46%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2015): 13.796%

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mailanmaik // Pixabay

#49. Peru

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 0.49%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 7.84%


 

 

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Osia ZANNOU // Wikicommons

#48. Benin

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 0.56%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 0.05%


 

 

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Christopher Michel // Flickr

#47. Sudan

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 0.59%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2011): 90.862%


 

 

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Nigel Swales // Flickr

#46. Belarus

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 0.60%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 20.51%


 

 

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Muhammad Rasyid Prabowo // Wikicommons

#45. Indonesia

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 0.65%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 19.3%


 

 

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Deensel // Flickr

#44. Argentina

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 0.66%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 2.53%


 

 

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xusenru // Pixabay

#43. Uzbekistan

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 0.68%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports: Never reported


 

 

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François COLIN // Wikicommons

#42. Mauritania

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 0.74%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2014): 3.263%


 

 

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Rod Waddington // Flickr

#41. Yemen

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 0.74%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2015): 0.192%


 

 

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dronepicr // Flickr

#40. Belize

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 0.8%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 5.65%


 

 

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NakNakNak // Pixabay

#39. Brazil

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 0.98%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 6.34%


 

 

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Quangpraha // Pixabay

#38. Vietnam

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 1.07%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 2.03%

 

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EEJCC / Wikicommons

#37. Bolivia

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 1.22%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 34.61%


 

 

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Roland Huziaker // Wikicommons

#36. Niger

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 1.37%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 17.12%


 

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Erdenebayar // Pixabay

#35. Mongolia

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 1.47%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 31.68%


 

 

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Jakub Hejtmánek // Wikicommons

#34. Mexico

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 1.49%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 4.91%


 

 

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Rjruiziii // Wikicommons

#33. Ghana

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 1.57%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 22.15%


 

 

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peternguyen11 // Pixabay

#32. Malaysia

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 1.61%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 13.78%

 

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spaztacular // Flickr

#31. Albania

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 1.66%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 11.18%

 

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Nayrouzzz // Wikicommons

#30. Tunisia

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 1.79%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 5.65%


 

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eGuide Travel // Flickr

#29. Papua New Guinea

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 2.01%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2012): 1.666%


 

 

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Dorymam // Cameroon

#28. Cameroon

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 2.10%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 6.17%

 

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Pedro Szekely // Wikicommons

#27. Colombia

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 2.18%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 49.96%

 

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Kalamazadkhan // Wikicommons

#26. Trinidad and Tobago

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 2.28%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2015): 48.866%

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Wadiia // Wikicommons

#25. Bahrain

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 2.54%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 55.03%

In April 2018, Bahrain discovered an estimated 80 billion barrels of oil, the largest haul in the country’s history, which is expected to aid its economy. Prior to the discovery, Bahrain was known for having low production of oil (relative to its neighbors, at least).

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U.S. Air Force

#24. Egypt

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 3.09%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 16.35%

Egypt is not currently a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), but it is a member of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries. In order to increase oil production, the Egyptian government has signed $15 billion worth of oil and gas exploration deals since June 2014.

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-JvL- // Flickr

#23. Suriname

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 3.4%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 9.46%

After being halted for decades due to a maritime boundary disagreement with Guyana, there is now ongoing offshore oil exploration in the Guyana-Suriname Basin. There have been nine discoveries on Guyana’s side of the basin since 2015, but no significant finds in Suriname’s territory.

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OpenUpEd // Flickr

#22. Nigeria

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 3.55%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 96.3%

Nigeria has the largest population of all OPEC members. The country’s oil was first discovered in 1956; however, Nigeria has faced a number of challenges to their oil industry in recent years, including decreased production rates, oil theft, and pipeline vandalism.

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Michael Shade // Wikicommons

#21. Ecuador

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 3.76%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 33.1%

Ecuador’s first productive oil well, Ancon 1, began producing in 1921. A member of OPEC, Ecuador cut its output by 2.07% in 2018 in order to meet the organization’s compliance requirements.

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Thomas Fabian // Flickr

#20. Norway

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 3.84%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 53%

The first Norwegian oil fields to be developed were in the North Sea in the 1970s. Norway is currently recovering from the 2014 oil crash. Forty to 45 wells will be drilled in 2018, compared to about 30 in 2017.

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Kerri-Jo Stewart // Wikicommons

#19. Turkmenistan

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 5.52%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports: Not reported since 2000

Oil extraction began in Turkmenistan in 1909, and reached a peak in 1974. In 2017, Turkmenistan’s president announced plans to invest billions of dollars to boost the country’s oil and gas sectors.

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Bernard Spragg. NZ // Flickr

#18. Brunei Darussalam

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 6.93%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 87.88%

Brunei's oil production peaked in 2002 with more than 220,000 barrels produced per day. Until recently, Brunei thrived off its oil wealth and was considered the second-richest country in Southeast Asia, after Singapore. Now that global energy prices have dropped, Brunei’s economy is suffering.

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Ninara // Flickr

#17. Russia

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 7.01%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 47.19%

Russia is an ally (not a member) of OPEC, and in June 2018 agreed with organization’s decision to boost oil output. In September 2018, Russia hit a record high for post-Soviet oil production levels at nearly 11.4 million barrels per day.

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Ken Doerr // Flickr

#16. Chad

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 8.66%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports: Not reported since 1975

Chad has the 10th-largest oil reserve in Africa. The Chad-Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Project was completed in 2003, and now carries oil from southern Chad through Cameroon to an offshore floating storage vessel.

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Ninaras // Wikicommons

#15. Kazakhstan

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 10.05%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 60.74%

Chevron made a $36.8 billion deal with Kazakhstan in 2016 to develop the Tengiz oil field. Kazakhstan has plans to increase its production rate to 130 million tons per year by 2020. The ongoing expansion in output has put them at risk of violating their obligations to OPEC.

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Global Photographer // Wikicommons

#14. Gabon

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 10.37%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2009): 83.135%

Gabon was a member of OPEC from 1975 to 1995, and rejoined in 2016. Their oil production peaked in 2006 at 370,000 barrels per day. As older oil fields lose potency, focus has shifted to offshore resources.

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Salim Shadid // Flickr

#13. Algeria

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 10.92%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 93.99%

Oil was first discovered in Algeria in 1956, and production began in 1958. In 2018, the country pledged to begin initiatives to increase oil output and exports. Algeria is the geographically largest member of OPEC.


 

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David Stanley // Wikicommons

#12. Angola

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 12.63%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2014): 94.995%

A member of OPEC, Angola is the second-largest oil producer in Africa. There has been a decrease in output over the last decade, from 1.9 million barrels per day to 1.5 million. The government is looking to turn this trend around with the newly minted National Agency of Petroleum and Gas.


 

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F.rabiee // Wikicommons

#11. Iran

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 13.57%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2011): 70.479%

The first person to discover oil in Iran was British mining entrepreneur William Knox D’Arcy in 1908. According to geographer Richard Heede, the National Iranian Oil Company has the third-highest levels of CO2 emissions of any global company. The United States will impose new oil sanctions on Iran in late 2018, in an attempt to halt involvement in conflicts in Syria and Iraq.


 

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Sam valadi // Flickr

#10. United Arab Emirates

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 14.55%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 20.23%

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) began exporting oil in 1962, becoming one of the Middle East’s most important economic hubs. A recent report from the International Energy Agency suggests that oil demands will wane in the 2020s, and countries like the UAE should begin to diversify their economies.


 

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Embassy of Equatorial Guinea // Flickr

#9. Equatorial Guinea

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 14.85%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports: Not reported since 1983

Oil production in Equatorial Guinea began relatively recently, as its large oil reserves were first discovered in 1996. The government is looking to increase investments in oil in 2019. Gabriel Mbaga Obiang Lima, the country's Minister of Mines and Hydrocarbons, said he wants international oil companies to invest at least $2 billion in Equatorial Guinea’s hydrocarbons industry.


 

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Larry Johnson // Flickr

#8. Qatar

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 16.32%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 81.55%

Qatar is the smallest OPEC member in both area and population. Energy Minister Mohammed al-Sada has recently called for the global increase of oil output as prices are rising, saying that Qatar will boost its own production to be on-par with other major oil-producing countries.

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David Davidson // Flickr

#7. Azerbaijan

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 17.46%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 87.51%

Azerbaijan was one of the first oil-producing countries in the world—Marco Polo wrote about the burning oil fires he saw there in the 13th century. As Azerbaijan has only about 30 years of oil dependency left, the government is looking for ways to diversify its economy.

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Irene2005 // Flickr

#6. Republic of the Congo

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 19.42%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2014): 61.868%

Oil production began in the Republic of the Congo in the 1970s and is still expanding. President Denis Nguesso increased output to 350,000 barrels a day in 2018, a 25% growth over 2017. This is in contrast to some other African countries, which are decreasing production.

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Graham Crumb // Flickr

#5. Timor-Leste

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 19.99%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports: Never reported

After oil was discovered in the Timor Sea in the 1970s, Timor-Leste and neighboring Australia began disputes over which would be entitled to these resources. The two countries finally signed a maritime agreement in March 2018. Negotiations on how to develop the untapped Greater Sunrise basin, which could contain $53 billions of gas reserves, are still ongoing.

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SuzyT // Pixabay

#4. Oman

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 24.65%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 62.53%

Oman began exporting oil in 1967, and oil currently makes up 75% of the government’s revenue. Oman is not part of OPEC, making it the largest oil producer in the Middle East not to be a member.

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lawepw // Wikicommons

#3. Saudi Arabia

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 26.44%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 79.14%

Oil was first found in the Arabian desert in 1938. Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman is hoping to move the Saudi economy away from oil by 2030. The government has even considered selling off part of Saudi Aramco, the kingdom’s national oil company.

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USACE HQ , JIM GORDAN, CIV, USACE // Wikicommons

#2. Iraq

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 42.41%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 99.99%

The earliest search for oil in the modern area of Iraq began under the Ottoman Empire in the 20th century. The United Nations estimates that 99% of Iraq’s revenue comes from oil. With an estimated 50 to 200 billion barrels of oil still undiscovered, Iraq has the largest untapped market in the world.

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Maryam // Wikicommons

#1. Kuwait

Oil revenue as % of GDP (2016): 44.03%

Fuel exports as % of merchandise exports (2017): 89.69%

Petroleum is Kuwait’s largest industry, making up almost half of its gross domestic product. The Kuwait Petroleum Company, a government-owned oil company, produces about 2.7 million barrels of oil a day. Kuwait was one of the five founding countries of the OPEC, and remains a member today.


 

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